Knee Replacement Surgery
Joint replacement involves surgery to replace the ends of bones in a damaged joint. This surgery creates new joint surfaces.
In knee replacement surgery, the ends of the damaged thigh and lower leg (shin) bones and usually the kneecap are capped with artificial surfaces lined with metal and plastic. Usually, doctors replace the entire surface at the ends of the thigh and lower leg bones. Doctors usually secure knee joint components to the bones with Reference cement.
Doctors are working on ways to replace just the damaged parts of the knee joint. This is sometimes called partial joint replacement. Unicompartmental replacement is one example of partial knee replacement. It replaces just the inner knee surfaces or the outer knee surfaces, depending on where the damage is. Another partial replacement is called a patellofemoral replacement. In this surgery, the end of the thigh bone is replaced, and an artificial surface is used to line the back of the kneecap.
In knee replacement surgery, doctors remove the damaged cartilage and replace it with new joint surfaces in a step-by-step process.
View a Reference slideshow on knee replacement Opens New Window Reference Opens New Window to see what happens during this surgery.
Joint changes caused by osteoarthritis may also stretch and damage the ligaments that connect the thighbone to the lower leg bone. After surgery, the artificial joint itself and the remaining ligaments around the joint usually provide enough stability so that the damaged ligaments are not a problem.
Doctors often use general Reference anesthesia Opens New Window for joint replacement surgeries. This means you'll be unconscious during surgery. But sometimes they use regional anesthesia, which means you can't feel the area of the surgery and you are sleepy, but you are awake. The choice of anesthesia depends on your doctor, on your overall health, and, to some degree, on what you prefer.
Your doctor may recommend that you take antibiotics before and after the surgery to reduce the risk of infection. If you need any major dental work, your doctor may recommend that you have it done before the surgery. Infections can spread from other parts of the body, such as the mouth, to the artificial joint and cause a serious problem.
|By:||Reference Healthwise Staff||Last Revised: April 9, 2011|
|Medical Review:||Reference Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
Reference Stanford M. Shoor, MD - Rheumatology