Parts Used & Where Grown
Various related species of pau d’arco trees grow in rain forests throughout Latin America. The bark is used for medical purposes.
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3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
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1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
Refer to label instructions
Pau d’Arco is an herb that directly fights both microbes and fungus.
Herbs that directly attack microbes include the following: Reference chaparral, Reference eucalyptus, Reference garlic, Reference green tea, Reference lemon balm (antiviral), Reference lomatium, Reference myrrh, Reference olive leaf, Reference onion, Reference oregano, Reference pau d’arco (antifungal), Reference rosemary, Reference sage, Reference sandalwood, Reference St. John’s wort, Reference tea tree oil, Reference thyme, and Reference usnea.
Refer to label instructions
Pau d’arco extract has been used traditionally for prostatitis. The herb exerts antibacterial activity against E.coli, the most common cause of two types of prostatitis.
Reference Pau d’arco extract has been used traditionally for prostatitis.2 According to test tube studies, pau d’arco exerts antibacterial activity against E.coli,3 which suggests a possible mechanism for this claim. However, no scientific studies of the effectiveness of pau d’arco for preventing or treating prostatitis have been done.
Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)
Native peoples in Central and South America reportedly use pau d’arco bark to treat cancer, Reference lupus, infectious diseases, Reference wounds, and many other health conditions.1 Caribbean folk healers use the leaf of this tree in addition to the bark for the treatment of backache, toothache, sexually transmitted diseases, and as an aphrodisiac.
How It Works
How It Works
Lapachol and beta-lapachone (known collectively as naphthaquinones) are two primary active compounds in pau d’arco. According to laboratory tests, both have anti-fungal properties as potent as Reference ketoconazole, a common antifungal drug.4 However, amounts of these constituents needed to exert an antifungal effect may be toxic to humans. Although these compounds also have anticancer properties according to test tube studies, the effective amount for this effect may also be toxic.5 , 6 Therefore, pau d’arco cannot currently be recommended as a treatment for cancer.
How to Use It
A traditional recommendation is 2–3 teaspoons (10–15 grams) of the inner bark simmered in a pint (500 ml) of water for fifteen minutes three times per day.7 However, the naphthaquinones believed to give pau d’arco its major effects are very poorly extracted in water, so teas are not usually recommended in modern herbal medicine.8 Capsules or tablets providing 500–600 mg of powdered bark can be taken three times per day. A tincture, 1/8–1/4 teaspoon (0.5–1 ml) three times per day, can also be used.
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds
Interactions with Medicines
High amounts (several grams daily over several days) of lapachol can cause uncontrolled bleeding, nausea, and vomiting.9 Use of the whole bark is typically safer than isolated lapachol—side effects have included nausea and gastrointestinal upset.10 Reference Pregnant or breast-feeding women should avoid use of pau d’arco.
One case report exists of a 28-year-old man who died of liver failure after taking unspecified amounts of pau d’arco, scullcap, and zinc.11 It appears likely that this may have been a case of adulteration of scullcap with germander.12
1. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 470–1.
2. Pizzorno JE, Murray MT. A Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd ed.. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1999, 968.
3. Anesini C, Perez C. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;39:119–28.
4. Guiraud P, Steiman R, Campos-Takaki GM, et al. Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and beta-lapachone. Planta Med 1994;60:373–4.
5. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994, 180.
6. Oswald EH. Lapacho. Br J Phytother 1993/4;3:112–7.
7. Foster S. Herbs for Your Health. Loveland, CO: Interweave Press, 1996, 70–1.
8. Awang DVC, Dawson BA, Ethier JC, et al. Naphthoquinone constituents of commercial lapacho/pau d’arco/taheebo products. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1994;2:27–43.
9. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 470–1.
10. Oswald EH. Lapacho. Br J Phytother 1993/4;3:112–7.
11. Hullar TE, Sapers BL, Ridker PM, et al. Herbal toxicity and fatal hepatic failure [letter]. Am J Med 1999;106:267–8.
12. Brown D. A case of fatal liver failure associated with herbal products. Healthnotes Rev Complement Integrative Med 1999;6:176–7.
Last Review: 11-07-2012
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The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2013.