Type 2 Diabetes
Exams and Tests
If your doctor thinks that you may have diabetes, he or she will order blood tests to measure how much sugar is in your blood. The tests used are Reference blood glucose tests and Reference hemoglobin A1c.
To make a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will use your blood test results and the Reference American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. He or she will also ask you questions about your Reference medical history and do a Reference physical exam for type 2 diabetes.
Tests to monitor your health
You'll need to see your doctor every 3 to 6 months. At each visit you'll:
- Check your blood sugar levels since your last visit and review your Reference target range.
- Check your blood pressure and start or adjust treatment if your blood pressure is higher than 130/80. Nerve and blood vessel damage can result from high blood pressure, leading to heart problems and strokes. For more information, see the topic Reference High Blood Pressure.
- Have a Reference hemoglobin A1c test. This blood test shows how steady your blood sugar levels have been over time.
See a list of Reference tests to monitor type 2 diabetes to help you remember what to do and when.
Review your progress regularly
Regular visits and checkups with your doctor are also a good time to:
- Review your meal plan.
- Review your physical activity.
- Review your mental health.
- Review your blood sugar records.
- Review your medicines.
These visits are also a good time to talk with your doctor about how you're feeling. It's normal to feel frustrated or overwhelmed with all there is to do. If you're having trouble coping, your doctor can help.
Tests to do every year
- A Reference complete eye exam by an Reference ophthalmologist Opens New Window or Reference optometrist Opens New Window. High blood sugar levels from diabetes can damage your eyes. This test can find problems early.
- A Reference Reference foot exam for signs of problems. Nerve damage in your feet makes it hard to feel an injury or infection. Take off your socks each time you see the doctor to be sure you both remember to check your feet.
- A Reference cholesterol and triglyceride test. This test shows your LDL cholesterol level. You and your doctor can adjust your treatment plan according to how high it is.
- A Reference urine test, to check for protein. If protein is found, you'll have more tests to help guide the best treatment. Protein in the urine can be a sign of kidney damage (Reference diabetic nephropathy Opens New Window).
- A Reference blood test for creatinine and Reference glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This test is used to screen for kidney disease.
- A Reference liver function test. This test looks for damage to the liver.
- A Reference thyroid-stimulating hormone test. Women over 50 years old or anyone with high cholesterol should have this test.
- Dental exam. See your dentist twice a year for professional cleaning of your teeth and to look for gum disease. Seeing your dentist is one part of taking Reference care of your teeth and gums when you have diabetes.
Eye exams during pregnancy
If you get pregnant, you will need to have an Reference eye exam sometime during the first 3 months. You'll also need close follow-up during your pregnancy and for 1 year after you have your baby. Pregnancy increases your risk for Reference diabetic retinopathy Opens New Window.Reference 1 If you already have eye disease and get pregnant, the disease can quickly get worse.
|By:||Reference Healthwise Staff||Last Revised: Reference December 28, 2012|
|Medical Review:||Reference E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Reference Jennifer Hone, MD - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism