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    Eucalyptus

    Eucalyptus

    Uses

    Botanical names:
    Eucalyptus globulus

    Parts Used & Where Grown

    Eucalyptus is an evergreen tree native to Australia but is cultivated worldwide. The plant?s leaves?and the oil that is steam-distilled from them?are used medicinally.1

    What Are Star Ratings?

    Our proprietary ?Star-Rating? system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

    2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

    1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement,little scientific support.

    This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

    Used for Why
    2 Stars
    Sinusitis
    Take an amount containing 200 mg of cineole three times daily
    [2 stars] The main ingredient of eucalyptus oil, cineole, may help speed the healing of acute sinusitis.

    The main ingredient of eucalyptus oil, cineole, has been studied as a treatment for sinusitis. In a double-blind study of people with acute sinusitis that did not require treatment with antibiotics, those given cineole orally in the amount of 200 mg 3 times per day recovered significantly faster than those given a placebo.3 Eucalyptus oil is also often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion. Eucalyptus oil is said to function in a fashion similar to menthol by acting on receptors in the nasal mucous membranes, leading to a reduction in the symptoms of nasal stuffiness.4

    1 Star
    Athletic Performance
    Refer to label instructions
    [1 star] Eucalyptus-based rubs have been found to warm muscles in athletes. This suggests that eucalyptus may help relieve minor muscle soreness when applied topically.
    Eucalyptus -based rubs have been found to warm muscles in athletes.5 This suggests that eucalyptus may help relieve minor muscle soreness when applied topically, though studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
    1 Star
    Bronchitis
    Refer to label instructions
    Eucalyptus leaf tea is used to treat bronchitis and inflammation of the throat, and is considered antimicrobial.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    Eucalyptus leaf tea is used to treat bronchitis and inflammation of the throat,6 and is considered antimicrobial. In traditional herbal medicine, eucalyptus tea or volatile oil is often used internally as well as externally over the chest; both uses are approved for people with bronchitis by the German Commission E.7

    1 Star
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Refer to label instructions
    Eucalyptus is used traditionally to promote mucus discharge.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    Herbs commonly used as expectorants in traditional medicine include eucalyptus , elecampane , lobelia , yerba santa (Eriodictyon californicum), wild cherry bark, gumweed (Grindelia robusta), and anise (Pimpinella anisum). Animal studies have suggested that some of these herbs increase discharge of mucus.8 However, none have been studied for efficacy in humans.

    1 Star
    Common Cold and Sore Throat
    Eucalyptus oil
    [1 star] Eucalyptus oil is often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion.

    Eucalyptus oil is often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion. It is said to work similarly to menthol, by acting on receptors in the nasal mucous membranes, leading to a reduction of nasal stuffiness.9 Peppermint may have a similar action and is a source of small amounts of menthol.

    1 Star
    Cough
    Refer to label instructions
    Historically, herbal practitioners have recommended a steam inhalation of eucalyptus vapor to help treat asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, and emphysema.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    The early 19th-century Eclectic physicians in the United States (who used herbs as their main medicine) not only employed eucalyptus oil to sterilize instruments and wounds but also recommended a steam inhalation of the oil?s vapor to help treat asthma , bronchitis , whooping cough, and emphysema.10

    1 Star
    Genital Herpes
    Refer to label instructions
    [1 star] Research suggests that substances found in eucalyptus have potential benefit for topical prevention of genital herpes.

    Test tube and animal research suggests that substances found in turmeric , cloves, eucalyptus , and seaweed have potential benefit for topical prevention of genital herpes, but no human research using available herbal products has been performed.11

    1 Star
    Halitosis
    Refer to label instructions
    Volatile oils made from eucalyptus have antibacterial properties and may be effective in mouthwash or toothpaste form.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    The potent effects of some commercial mouthwashes may be due to the inclusion of thymol (from thyme ) and eukalyptol (from eucalyptus )?volatile oils that have proven activity against bacteria. One report showed bacterial counts plummet in as little as 30 seconds following a mouthrinse with the commercial mouthwash Listerine, which contains thymol and eukalyptol.12 Thymol alone has been shown in research to inhibit the growth of bacteria found in the mouth.13 , 14 Because of their antibacterial properties, other volatile oils made from tea tree ,15 clove, caraway , peppermint , and sage ,16 as well as the herbs myrrh 17 and bloodroot ,18 might be considered in a mouthwash or toothpaste. Due to potential allergic reactions and potential side effects if some of these oils are swallowed, it is best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional before pursuing self-treatment with volatile oils that are not in approved over-the-counter products for halitosis.
    1 Star
    Infection
    Refer to label instructions
    Eucalyptus is an herb that directly attack microbes.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    Herbs that directly attack microbes include the following: chaparral , eucalyptus , garlic , green tea , lemon balm (antiviral), lomatium , myrrh , olive leaf , onion , oregano , pau d?arco (antifungal), rosemary , sage , sandalwood , St. John?s wort , tea tree oil , thyme , and usnea .
    1 Star
    Low Back Pain
    Refer to label instructions
    [1 star] A combination of eucalyptus and peppermint oil applied directly to a painful area may help by decreasing pain and increasing blood flow to afflicted regions.

    A combination of eucalyptus and peppermint oil applied directly to a painful area may help. Preliminary research indicates that the counter-irritant quality of these essential oils may decrease pain and increase blood flow to afflicted regions.19 Peppermint and eucalyptus, diluted in an oil base, are usually applied several times per day, or as needed, to control pain. Plant oils that may have similar properties are rosemary, juniper, and wintergreen.

    1 Star
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Refer to label instructions
    [1 star] Eucalyptus oil has been used historically to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Applied to painful joints, it may help relieve rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.

    Topical applications of several botanical oils are approved by the German government for relieving symptoms of RA.20 These include primarily cajeput (Melaleuca leucodendra) oil, camphor oil, eucalyptus oil, fir (Abies alba and Picea abies) needle oil, pine (Pinus spp.) needle oil, and rosemary oil. A few drops of oil or more can be applied to painful joints several times a day as needed. Most of these topical applications are based on historical use and are lacking modern clinical trials to support their effectiveness in treating RA.

    1 Star
    Sinus Congestion
    Refer to label instructions
    Eucalyptus oil is often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    Eucalyptus oil is often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion. Eucalyptus oil is said to function in a fashion similar to that of menthol by acting on receptors in the nasal mucous membranes, leading to a reduction in the symptoms of nasal stuffiness.21

    1 Star
    Sinusitis
    Refer to label instructions
    Eucalyptus oil is often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion. It acts on receptors in the nasal mucous membranes, leading to less stuffiness.

    Caution: Do not use eucalyptus oil internally without supervision by a healthcare professional. As little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.

    The main ingredient of eucalyptus oil, cineole, has been studied as a treatment for sinusitis. In a double-blind study of people with acute sinusitis that did not require treatment with antibiotics, those given cineole orally in the amount of 200 mg 3 times per day recovered significantly faster than those given a placebo.22 Eucalyptus oil is also often used in a steam inhalation to help clear nasal and sinus congestion. Eucalyptus oil is said to function in a fashion similar to menthol by acting on receptors in the nasal mucous membranes, leading to a reduction in the symptoms of nasal stuffiness.23

    Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)

    Eucalyptus was first used by Australian aborigines, who not only chewed the roots for water in the dry outback but used the leaves as a remedy for fevers. In the 1800s, crew members of an Australian freighter developed high fevers, but were able to successfully cure their condition using eucalyptus tea. Thus, eucalyptus became well known throughout Europe and the Mediterranean as the Australian fever tree. Early 19th century Eclectic physicians in the United States not only used eucalyptus oil to sterilize instruments and wounds, but recommended a steam inhalation of the vapor of its oil to help treat asthma , bronchitis , whooping cough, and emphysema.2

    How It Works

    Botanical names:
    Eucalyptus globulus

    How It Works

    The major constituent in eucalyptus leaves is a volatile oil known as eucalyptol (1,8-cineol). In order to provide an effective expectorant and antiseptic action, the leaf oil should contain approximately 70?85% eucalyptol.24 Eucalyptus oil is said to function in a fashion similar to that of menthol by acting on receptors in the nasal mucosa, leading to a reduction in symptoms such as nasal congestion .25 In test tube studies, eucalyptus species have been shown to possess antibacterial actions against such organisms as Bacillus subtilis,26 as well as several strains of Streptococcus.27 These actions have not been researched in human clinical trials.

    Peppermint (10 grams) and eucalyptus oil (5 grams) in combination, applied topically to the forehead and temples for three minutes with a small sponge, have been shown to be helpful as a muscle relaxant (but not for pain relief) in people with tension headaches.28 A eucalyptus oil extract containing 50% p-methane-3,8-diol (PMD) as the active ingredient has been shown to be effective in protecting human volunteers from various types of biting insects.29 On human forearms, it was determined that the eucalyptus extract was nearly as effective as a 20% solution of diethyltoluamine (used in many insect repellents) in repelling bites of the Anopheles mosquito (the insect that spreads malaria) for up to five hours. The eucalyptus extract was also effective at repelling flies (94%) and midges (100%) for up to six hours.

    A preliminary study suggests the combination of eucalyptus and menthol as a nasal inhalant is helpful in cases of mild to moderate snoring.30 Also, in a double-blind trial, a eucalyptus-based rub was found helpful for warming muscles in athletes.31 This further suggests eucalyptus may help relieve minor muscle soreness when applied topically, though studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

    How to Use It

    Eucalyptus oil (0.05?0.2 ml per day) can be taken internally by adults.32 It should always be diluted in warm water before consuming. For local applications, 30 ml of the oil can be mixed in 500 ml of lukewarm water and applied topically as an insect repellent or used over the temporal areas of the forehead for tension headaches. As an inhalant, add a few drops of eucalyptus oil to hot water or a vaporizer. Deeply inhale the steam vapor. For eucalyptus leaf preparations, an infusion of 2?3 grams of the chopped leaves may be boiled in 150 ml of water and taken two times per day. Eucalyptus oil needs to be used very cautiously since as little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal.33 It is best for people to discuss internal use with a qualified healthcare professional.

    Warning: Eucalyptus oil needs to be used very cautiously since as little as 3.5 ml of the oil taken internally has proven fatal. It is best for individuals to discuss internal use with a qualified healthcare professional.

    Interactions

    Botanical names:
    Eucalyptus globulus

    Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

    Although there are no known reports of drug interactions, the German Commission E monograph suggests that because eucalyptus oil may activate certain enzyme systems in the liver, it may potentially weaken or shorten the action of some medications, including pentobarbital, aminopyrine, and amphetamine.34 , 35

    Interactions with Medicines

    As of the last update, we found no reported interactions between this supplement and medicines. It is possible that unknown interactions exist. If you take medication, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a new supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.
    The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers? package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

    Side Effects

    Botanical names:
    Eucalyptus globulus

    Side Effects

    Side effects from the internal use of eucalyptus can include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea . Eucalyptus oil should not be used by infants and children under the age of two, especially near the face and nose, due to the risk of airway spasm and possible cessation of breathing.36 The oil may aggravate bronchial spasms in people with asthma and should not be taken internally by those with severe liver diseases and inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and kidney.37 , 38 Whole-body application of eucalyptus oil (double-distilled, containing 80 to 85% cineole oil) resulted in severe nervous system toxicity in a six-year-old girl.39 In a case report, a 4-year-old girl suffered a seizure after application of a eucalyptus oil preparation to the hair and scalp for the treatment of head lice.40 Eucalyptus should not be used in large amounts by people with low blood pressure as it may cause a further drop in blood pressure.41 The safety of eucalyptus oil has not been established in pregnant or nursing women.

    References

    1. Wren RC. Potter?s New Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Essex, England: C.W. Daniel Co., 1988, 110?1.

    2. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1991, 162?3.

    3. Kehrl W, Sonnemann U, Dethlefsen U. Therapy for acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis with cineole: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Laryngoscope2004;114:738?42.

    4. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1998, 146?7.

    5. Hong CZ, Shellock FG. Effects of a topically applied counter irritant (Eucalyptamint) on cutaneous blood flow and on skin and muscle temperature: A placebo controlled study. Am J Phys Med Rehab 1991;70:29?33.

    6. Wichtl M. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press, 1994,192?4.

    7. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 126?8.

    8. Boyd EM. Expectorants and respiratory tract fluid. Pharmacol Rev 1954;6:521?42 [review].

    9. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1998, 146?7.

    10. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1991, 162?3.

    11. Bourne KZ, Bourne N, Reising SF, Stanberry LR. Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: assessment of in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus type 2. Antiviral Research 1999;42:219?26.

    12. Kato T, Iijima H, Ishihara K, et al. Antibacterial effects of Listerine on oral bacteria. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 1990;31:301?7.

    13. Cosentino S, Tuberoso CI, Pisano B, et al. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett Appl Microbiol 1999;29:130?5.

    14. Petersson LG, Edwardsson S, Arends J. Antimicrobial effect of a dental varnish, in vitro. Swed Dent J 1992;16:183?9.

    15. Cox SD, Mann CM, Markham JL, et al. The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:170?5.

    16. Serfaty R, Itic J. Comparative trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dent 1988;1:A34?7.

    17. Dolara P, Corte B, Ghelardini C, et al. Local anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties of sesquiterpenes from myrrh. Planta Med 2000;66:356?8.

    18. Hannah JJ, Johnson JD, Kuftinec MM. Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;96:199?207.

    19. Hong CZ, Shellock FG. Effects of a topically applied counterirritant (Eucalyptamint) on cutaneous blood flow and on skin and muscle temperatures. A placebo-controlled study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1991;70:29?33.

    20. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al., eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 430?1.

    21. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1998, 146?7.

    22. Kehrl W, Sonnemann U, Dethlefsen U. Therapy for acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis with cineole: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Laryngoscope2004;114:738?42.

    23. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1998, 146?7.

    24. Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler?s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicines. New York: Haworth Press, 1999, 123.

    25. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998, 146?7.

    26. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, 232?3.

    27. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996, 108.

    28. Gobel H, Schmidt G, Dowarski M, et al. Essential plant oils and headache mechanisms. Phytomed 1995;2:93?102.

    29. Trigg JK, Hill N. Laboratory evaluation of a eucalyptus-based insect repellent against four biting arthropods. Phytother Res 1996;10:313?6. Reviewed by Yarnell E. Selected herbal research summaries QRNM 1997;116.

    30. Ishizuka Y, Imamura Y, Tereshima K, et al. Effects of nasal inhalation capsule. Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Tokyo 1997;40:9?13.

    31. Hong CZ, Shellock FG. Effects of a topically applied counter irritant (Eucalyptamint) on cutaneous blood flow and on skin and muscle temperature: A placebo controlled study. Am J Phys Med Rehab 1991;70:29?33.

    32. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996, 108.

    33. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, 232?3.

    34. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 127?8.

    35. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Institute Publishers, 1997, 46?7.

    36. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998, 146?7.

    37. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 127?8.

    38. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Institute Publishers, 1997, 46?7.

    39. Darben T, Cominos B, Lee CT. Topical eucalyptus oil poisoning. Australas J Dermatol 1998;39:265?7.

    40. Waldman N. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation. Clin Toxicol 2011;49:750?1.

    41. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Institute Publishers, 1997, 46?7.

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