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    Melatonin

    Melatonin

    Overview

    What is melatonin?

    Melatonin is a hormone made by the pineal gland , a small gland in the brain. Melatonin helps control your sleep and wake cycles. Very small amounts of it are found in foods such as meats, grains, fruits, and vegetables. You can also buy it as a supplement.

    What does natural melatonin do in the body?

    Your body has its own internal clock that controls your natural cycle of sleeping and waking hours. In part, your body clock controls how much melatonin your body makes. Normally, melatonin levels begin to rise in the mid- to late evening, remain high for most of the night, and then drop in the early morning hours.

    Light affects how much melatonin your body produces. During the shorter days of the winter months, your body may produce melatonin either earlier or later in the day than usual. This change can lead to symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD ), or winter depression .

    Natural melatonin levels slowly drop with age. Some older adults make very small amounts of it or none at all.

    Why is melatonin used as a dietary supplement?

    Melatonin supplements are sometimes used to treat jet lag or sleep problems ( insomnia ). Scientists are also looking at other good uses for melatonin, such as:

    • Treating seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
    • Helping to control sleep patterns for people who work night shifts.
    • Preventing or reducing problems with sleeping and confusion after surgery.
    • Reducing chronic cluster headaches.

    Is taking a melatonin dietary supplement safe?

    In most cases, melatonin supplements are safe in low doses for short-term and long-term use. But be sure to talk with your doctor about taking them.

    Children and pregnant or nursing women should not take melatonin without talking to a doctor first.

    Melatonin does have side effects. But they will go away when you stop taking the supplement. Side effects may include:

    • Sleepiness.
    • Lower body temperature.
    • Vivid dreams.
    • Morning grogginess.
    • Small changes in blood pressure.

    If melatonin makes you feel drowsy, do not drive or operate machinery when you are taking it.

    During health exams, tell your doctor if you are taking melatonin. And tell your doctor if you are having trouble sleeping (insomnia), because it may be related to a medical problem.

    In adults, melatonin is taken in doses from 0.2 mg to 20.0 mg, based on the reason for its use. The right dose varies widely from one person to another. Talk to your doctor to learn the right dosage and to find out if melatonin is right for you.

    Where can you find a melatonin supplement?

    You can buy melatonin supplements without a prescription at health food stores, drugstores, and online. Melatonin should only be taken in its man-made form. The form that comes from ground-up cow pineal glands is rarely used, because it may spread disease.

    Other Places To Get Help

    Organizations

    National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), National Institutes of Health
    9000 Rockville Pike
    Bethesda, MD20892
    Phone: 1-888-644-6226
    Fax: 1-866-464-3616 toll-free
    TDD: 1-866-464-3615 toll-free
    Email: info@nccam.nih.gov
    Web Address: www.nccam.nih.gov

    The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) explores complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science, trains complementary and alternative medicine researchers, and gives out authoritative information.


    National Sleep Foundation
    1010 North Glebe Road
    Suite 310
    Arlington, VA 22201
    Phone: (703) 243-1697
    Email: nsf@sleepfoundation.org
    Web Address: www.sleepfoundation.org

    The National Sleep Foundation, an independent nonprofit organization, can provide you with brochures on sleep disorders and a list of accredited sleep disorder clinics.


    References

    Other Works Consulted

    • Melatonin (2009). Review of Natural Products. St. Louis: Wolters Kluwer Health.
    • Rajaratnam SM, et al. (2009). Melatonin and melatonin analogues. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4: 179?193.

    Credits

    By Healthwise Staff
    Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
    Alfred Lewy, MD, PhD - Psychiatry
    Last Revised June 20, 2012

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