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    Your Teen's Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    Your Teen's Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    Topic Overview

    Teens want an answer to the eternal question, "Who am I?" Part of the answer lies in their sexual self. The teen years can be a confusing time. Hormones, cultural and peer pressures, and fear of being different can cause many teens to question themselves in many areas, including their sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Sexual orientation is how you are attracted romantically and sexually to other people?to the same sex, to the other sex, or to both sexes. This attraction typically starts to form in the preteen years.

    Gender identity is different. It's your internal sense of whether you are male or female.

    Sexual orientation

    During the teen years, same-sex "crushes" are common. Some teens may experiment sexually. But these early experiences do not always mean that a teen will be gay, lesbian, or bisexual as an adult.

    For some teens, though, same-sex attractions do not fade. They grow stronger.

    Gender identity

    For some people, their gender identity does not match their physical body. Their body is male or female, but inside they feel they are really the opposite sex. People who feel this way often refer to themselves as "transgender."

    Children form their gender identity early. Most children believe firmly by the age of 3 that they are either girls or boys.

    The feeling that something is different may also begin early in life. Many transgender adults remember feeling a difference between their bodies and what they felt inside at a young age, well before their teen years. Others did not feel this way until much later in life.

    Love and support are key

    Many parents have a hard time accepting that their child may be gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Even if you are struggling with this possibility, remember the importance of showing unconditional love to your child.

    Teens who realize that they are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender sometimes stay "in the closet" (do not reveal their sexual orientation or gender identity) for a long time because they are afraid of what their friends, family, and others will say and do. This can be very stressful and can cause depression, anxiety, and other problems.

    Many teens feel relief when they come out of the closet and find love, support, and acceptance from parents, friends, and others. Unfortunately, some find that their fears come true.

    Young people who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender are at risk for:

    • Being shamed by society (social stigma).
    • Being shut out or excluded by peers and family members.
    • Depression.
    • Suicide.

    When teens have problems related to being gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, it isn't because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It's usually because of a lack of support from the people they love or because they have been or are being ridiculed, rejected, or harassed.

    Your teen can be emotionally healthy and happy regardless of whether he or she is heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual, or transgender.

    If you or other family members are having a hard time accepting a child's sexual orientation or gender identity, organizations such as Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) may be helpful.

    Other Places To Get Help

    Organizations

    American Psychiatric Association: Mental Health
    1000
    Wilson Boulevard
    1825
    Arlington, VA 22209
    Phone: 1-888-35-PSYCH
    Email: apa@psych.org
    Web Address: www.healthyminds.org

    This online resource is provided by the American Psychiatric Association for anyone seeking mental health information. It includes information on many common mental health concerns, including warning signs of mental disorders, treatment options, and preventive measures.


    American Psychological Association
    Web Address: www.apa.org

    American Social Health Association
    P.O. Box 13827
    Research Triangle Park, NC27709
    Phone: (919) 361-8400
    Fax: (919) 361-8425
    Web Address: www.ashastd.org

    The mission of the American Social Health Association is to improve the health of individuals, families, and communities, with a focus on sexual health and preventing sexually transmitted diseases.


    Family Equality Council
    Web Address: www.familyequality.org

    GLBT National Help Center
    Web Address: www.glnh.org

    PFLAG (Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays)
    1828 LStreet NW
    Suite 660
    Washington, DC 20036
    Phone: (202) 467-8180
    Fax: (202) 349-0788
    Email: info@pflag.org
    Web Address: www.pflag.org

    PFLAG is a support, education, and advocacy organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their families, friends, and allies. PFLAG is a nonprofit organization and is not affiliated with any religious or political institutions. On the website you can find information about local chapters, advocacy issues, and more.


    References

    Other Works Consulted

    • American Psychological Association (2008). Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Available online: http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx.
    • APA Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns (2011). Answers to Your Questions About Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Available online: http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/transgender.aspx.
    • Biggs WS (2011). Medical human sexuality. In RE Rakel, DP Rakel, eds., Textbook of Family Medicine, 8th ed., pp. 1000?1012. Philadelphia: Saunders.
    • Cromer B, et al. (2011). Adolescent development. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 649?659. Philadelphia: Saunders.
    • Hillman JB, Spigarelli MG (2009). Sexuality: Its development and direction. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 415?425. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
    • Sadock VA (2009). Normal human sexuality and sexual and gender identity disorders. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock?s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 1, pp. 2027?2060. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
    • Sass AE, Kaplan DW (2011). Adolescence. In WW Hay et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 20th ed., pp. 104?144. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    • Zucker KJ (2011). Gender identity and sexual behavior. In CD Rudolph et al., eds., Rudolph's Pediatrics, 22nd ed., pp. 346?348. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Credits

    By Healthwise Staff
    Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
    A. Evan Eyler, MD, MPH - Family Medicine, Psychiatry
    Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
    Last Revised October 25, 2012

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