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    Prescription Sleep Medicines

    Prescription Sleep Medicines

    Examples

    Generic Name Brand Name
    eszopiclone Lunesta
    ramelteon Rozerem
    zaleplon Sonata
    zolpidem Ambien

    Benzodiazepines may also be used to provide short-term relief from insomnia.

    How It Works

    These medicines are called sedative-hypnotics. They help your brain relax so that you can fall asleep.

    Why It Is Used

    Some people may need medicine for a while to help them fall asleep. Doctors often prescribe medicine for a short time if other treatment isn't working. These medicines work best as a short-term treatment combined with lifestyle and behavior changes.

    How Well It Works

    These medicines are effective at treating insomnia. They are the first-choice medicines for short-term insomnia. 1

    But how these medicines (except for ramelteon) treat insomnia may be in part, due to a placebo effect . 2

    These sleep medicines may not have as many withdrawal and tolerance effects as another class of drugs called benzodiazepines that are used to treat sleep problems. But medicine doesn't work as well over time as lifestyle and behavior changes do. Except for ramelteon, sleep medicine can also become habit-forming.

    Side Effects

    Side effects of sleep medicines may vary depending on which one you take. But side effects may include:

    • Daytime drowsiness and dizziness.
    • Headaches.
    • Dry mouth.
    • Muscle or joint pain.
    • Changes in appetite or in the way food tastes.
    • Problems with balance or coordination.
    • Confusion and trouble remembering things.
    • Physical problems, such as falling, especially in older people.
    • An allergic reaction.
    • Dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Sleep problems may get worse when you stop taking the medicine.

    In rare cases, people taking these medicines have done activities, such as driving and eating, while still asleep.

    See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)

    What To Think About

    These medicines may help with sleep problems, but they may not work any better than less expensive nonprescription sleep medicines, such as Nytol or Sominex.

    Complete the new medication information form (PDF) (What is a PDF document?) to help you understand this medication.

    References

    Citations

    1. Hirschkowitz M, et al. (2009). Sleep disorders. In BJ Sadock et al., eds. Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol 1, pp. 2150?2177. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
    2. Huedo-Medina T, et al. (2012). Effectiveness of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in treatment of adult insomnia: Meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. BMJ, Published online December 17, 2012 (doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8343).

    Credits

    By Healthwise Staff
    Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
    Lisa S. Weinstock, MD - Psychiatry
    Last Revised November 18, 2013

    Last Revised: November 18, 2013

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