Comparison of Hysterectomy Procedures
There are several different hysterectomy procedures, each with advantages and disadvantages. Depending on your reason for considering a hysterectomy, you may have a choice between two or more procedures. For complicated or cancer-related conditions that require maximum access and careful examination, your doctor will likely recommend an abdominal hysterectomy.
This type of hysterectomy is done through a small incision in the Reference vagina Opens New Window, rather than through an abdominal incision. The Reference ovaries Opens New Window and other organs may also be removed. Vaginal hysterectomy tends to cause less pain, and takes less healing time than abdominal hysterectomy. A vaginal hysterectomy can be done:
- To remove small Reference uterine fibroids Opens New Window.
- When the uterus is of normal size or slightly enlarged.
- When Reference endometriosis Opens New Window growths (implants) are not present.
- When there is no significant scarring in the pelvis from previous surgeries.
Vaginal hysterectomy requires more specialized surgical skill than an abdominal hysterectomy. It can pose a higher risk of injury to other organs. Vaginal hysterectomy is not used when there is a question about possible cancer in the uterus, cervix, or ovaries.
This type of hysterectomy is done through a larger abdominal incision, giving the surgeon the best possible access to the pelvic organs. The cervix may be removed with the uterus (total hysterectomy) or left in place (subtotal hysterectomy). The Reference ovaries Opens New Window and other organs may also be removed. An abdominal hysterectomy is typically done when:
- The uterus is very large.
- Uterine fibroids are larger than 8 in. (20 cm) across or located around blood vessels.
- Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or cervix is possible.
- An ovarian growth (mass) is suspected but can't be diagnosed on ultrasound.
- There is significant scarring or severe endometriosis in the pelvic area.
If a hysterectomy is chosen to treat endometriosis, an abdominal hysterectomy is usually required. One example is when endometriosis growths (implants) or scar tissue (adhesions) must be removed to restore the function of other organs.
Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)
Laparoscopic hysterectomy is done with a viewing instrument (Reference laparoscope Opens New Window) and surgical instruments inserted through a vaginal incision and one or more small abdominal incisions. The ovaries and other organs may also be removed. The uterus is removed through the vagina. It is done:
- When uterine fibroids are small to moderate in size.
- When the uterus is slightly larger than normal.
- To remove endometriosis and scar tissue (Reference adhesions Opens New Window) confined to the uterus, Reference fallopian tubes Opens New Window, and Reference ovaries Opens New Window.
- To assess or remove ovaries at the same time as a vaginal hysterectomy.
LAVH requires the surgeon to have specialized training.
Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH)
Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy is done by inserting a laparoscope and surgical instruments through several small abdominal incisions. The uterus is removed in small pieces through one of the incisions and the cervix is left intact. This is also known as subtotal or partial hysterectomy. This type of procedure usually causes minimal blood loss and pain. The hospital stay is shorter than for total abdominal surgery. Most women can return to normal activity a week or two afterward. LSH can be done:
- To remove uterine fibroids of any size.
- To remove a uterus of any size.
LSH usually takes longer to do than abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. LSH is not available in some areas.
Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH)
The total laparoscopic hysterectomy is done by inserting a laparoscope and surgical instruments through several small incisions in the abdomen. The uterus and the cervix are removed in small pieces through one of the incisions. TLH can be done:
- To remove uterine fibroids that are small to moderate in size.
- When there is not a lot of scar tissue in the pelvic area.
- When there is not a worry about cancer in the ovaries.
TLH requires the surgeon to have special training. It usually takes longer to do than abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. But recovery and hospital stay are shorter than for total abdominal hysterectomy. TLH is not available in many parts of the country.
When compared with abdominal hysterectomy, a routine vaginal hysterectomy:
When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine abdominal hysterectomy:
|Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)||
When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine LAVH:
|Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH)||
When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine LSH:
|Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH)||
When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine TLH:
|By:||Reference Healthwise Staff||Last Revised: Reference January 9, 2012|
|Medical Review:||Reference Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Reference Kirtly Jones, MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology