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    Amino Acids Overview

    Amino Acids Overview

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    Uses

    Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Twenty amino acids are needed to build the various proteins used in the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Eleven of these amino acids can be made by the body itself, while the other nine (called essential amino acids) must come from the diet. The essential amino acids are isoleucine , leucine , lysine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine, tryptophan, and valine . Another amino acid, histidine , is considered semi-essential because the body does not always require dietary sources of it. The nonessential amino acids are arginine , alanine , asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine , glutamine , glutamic acid , glycine , proline, serine, and tyrosine . Other amino acids, such as carnitine and taurine, are used by the body in ways other than protein-building and are often used therapeutically. L-Theanine is an amino acid found in tea that is said to help relieve stress. Beta-alanine has been used to prevent fatigue during exercise.

    What Are Star Ratings?

    Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

    2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

    1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

    This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

    Used for Why
    2 Stars
    Liver Cirrhosis
    18 grams daily of L-ornithine-L-aspartate
    As both a supplement and injection, L-ornithine-L-aspartate has been shown to significantly improve liver function, mental status, and brain function.

    L-ornithine-L-aspartate (OA) is a nutritional supplement that has been investigated as a treatment for cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. In a double-blind trial, participants taking 18 grams of OA for 14 days had significant improvements in liver function, mental status, and brain function.1 Similar benefits have also been demonstrated using injections of OA.2 , 3

    1 Star
    Athletic Performance
    Refer to label instructions
    Aspartic acid is an amino acid that participates in many biochemical reactions relating to energy and protein. Research suggests that it may help reduce fatigue during exercise.
    Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid that participates in many biochemical reactions relating to energy and protein. Preliminary, though conflicting, animal and human research suggested a role for aspartic acid (in the form of potassium and magnesium aspartate) in reducing fatigue during exercise.5 However, most studies have found aspartic acid useless in improving either athletic performance or the body's response to exercise.6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

    How It Works

    How to Use It

    Nutrition experts recommend that protein, as a source of amino acids, account for 10-12% of the calories in a balanced diet. However, requirements for protein are affected by age, weight, state of health, and other factors. On average, a normal adult requires approximately 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight. Using this formula, a 140-pound person would need 50 grams (or less than 2 ounces) of protein per day. An appropriate range of protein intake for healthy adults may be as low as 45-65 grams daily. Some athletes have higher amino acid requirements.11 Most American adults eat about 100 grams of protein per day, or about twice what their bodies need and at least as much as any athlete requires.

    Supplements of individual amino acids are recommended by doctors for specific purposes, such as lysine for herpes or phenylalanine for pain .

    Where to Find It

    Foods of animal origin, such as meat and poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products, are the richest dietary sources of the essential amino acids. Plant sources of protein are often deficient in one or more essential amino acids. However, these deficiencies can be overcome by consuming a wide variety of plant foods. For example, grains are low in lysine , whereas beans provide an excess of lysine. It was previously believed that, in order for vegetarians to obtain adequate amounts of protein, all of the essential amino acids had to be "balanced" at each meal. For example, a grain and a bean had to be consumed at the same meal. However, more recent research has indicated that, while consuming a proper mix of amino acids is important, it is not necessary to consume them all at the same meal.12

    Possible Deficiencies

    The vast majority of Americans eats more than enough protein and also more than enough of each essential amino acid for normal purposes. Dieters, some strict vegetarian body builders, and anyone consuming an inadequate number of calories may not be consuming adequate amounts of amino acids. In these cases, the body will break down the protein in muscle tissue and use those amino acids to meet the needs of more important organs or will simply not build more muscle mass despite increasing exercise.

    Interactions

    Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

    Amino acids include several different nutrients, each of which has the potential to interact with drugs. Look up the unique interactions for each and discuss the potential benefits and risks of your current medications with your doctor or pharmacist before adding amino acids:

    Interactions with Medicines

    Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

    Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

    Replenish Depleted Nutrients

    • AZT

      Preliminary information suggests that muscle damage sometimes caused by AZT is at least partially due to depletion of carnitine in the muscles by the drug.20 It has been reported that most patients taking AZT have depleted carnitine levels that can be restored with carnitine supplementation (6 grams per day).21

    • Busulfan

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.50 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Capecitabine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.66 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Carbamazepine

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.79 , 80 , 81 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.82 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.83 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Carboplatin

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.104 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Carmustine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.112 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Cefditoren Pivoxil
      In a case report, a woman developed visual disturbances and abnormal brain function, in association with subnormal blood levels of carnitine, after treatment with cefditoren pivoxil. The abnormalities resolved after supplementation with L-carnitine. People taking cefditoren pivoxil should ask their doctor whether taking an L-carnitine supplement is appropriate.126
    • Chlorambucil

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.147 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Cisplatin

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.148 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Cladribine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.182 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Clozapine

      Some people who take clozapine become mentally depressed after taking the drug for a few weeks. Studies have shown that clozapine can reduce blood levels of the amino acid L-tryptophan, which is often deficient in people with depression .186 More controlled research is needed to determine whether the interaction is significant and whether individuals taking clozapine might benefit from supplemental L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).

    • Cyclophosphamide

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.200 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Cytarabine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.209 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Diclofenac

      Diclofenac causes complex changes to L-tryptophan levels in the blood,225 but the clinical implications of this are unknown. More research is needed to determine whether supplementation with L-tryptophan is a good idea for people taking diclofenac.

    • Docetaxel

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.241 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Erlotinib

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.266 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Etoposide

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.280 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Felbamate

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.288 , 289 , 290 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.291 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.292 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Floxuridine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.293 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Fludarabine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.314 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Fluorouracil

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.357 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Hydroxyurea

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.363 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Ifosfamide

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.403 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Irinotecan

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.423 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Levetiracetam

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.432 , 433 , 434 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.435 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.436 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Lomustine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.450 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Mechlorethamine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.471 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Melphalan

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.480 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Mercaptopurine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.501 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Methotrexate
      Glutathione , the main antioxidant found within cells, is frequently depleted in individuals on chemotherapy and/or radiation. Preliminary studies have found that intravenously injected glutathione may decrease some of the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as diarrhea .524
    • Oxcarbazepine

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.529 , 530 , 531 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.532 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.533 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Paclitaxel

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.551 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Phenobarbital
      One controlled study showed that taking phenobarbital resulted in reduced blood levels of L-carnitine.[REF] Further research is needed to determine whether people taking phenobarbital might benefit from supplemental L-carnitine. Based on the currently available information, some healthcare practitioners may recommend monitoring L-carnitine blood levels or supplementing with L-carnitine.
    • Phenytoin

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.554 , 555 , 556 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.557 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.558 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.572 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Primidone

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.573 , 574 , 575 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.576 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.577 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Thioguanine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.609 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Thiotepa

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.617 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Topiramate

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.619 , 620 , 621 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.622 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.623 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Uracil Mustard

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.647 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Vinblastine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.667 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Vincristine

      Taurine has been shown to be depleted in people taking chemotherapy.689 It remains unclear how important this effect is or if people taking chemotherapy should take taurine supplements.

    • Zonisamide

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.690 , 691 , 692 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.693 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.694 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    Reduce Side Effects

    • Bicalutamide

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.23 , 24 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,25 , 26 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.27 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,28 but not all29 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.30

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.31 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.32 , 33

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.34

      In a double-blind study, supplementation with 18 grams of glutamine per day for 15 days, starting five days before the beginning of 5-FU therapy, significantly reduced the severity of drug-induced intestinal toxicity.35

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.36

    • Busulfan

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.51 , 52 , 53 , 54 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.55 , 56 , 57 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Capecitabine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.67 , 68 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,69 , 70 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.71 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,72 but not all,73 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.74

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.75 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.76 , 77

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.78

    • Carboplatin

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.103

    • Carmustine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.114 , 115 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,116 , 117 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.118 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,119 but not all,120 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.121

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.122 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.123 , 124

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.125

    • Chlorambucil

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.140 , 141 , 142 , 143 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.144 , 145 , 146 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Cisplatin

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.150 , 151 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,152 , 153 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.154 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,155 but not all,156 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.157

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.158 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.159 , 160

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.161

    • Cladribine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.170 , 171 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,172 , 173 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.174 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,175 but not all,176 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.177

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.178 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.179 , 180

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.181

    • Cyclophosphamide

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.188 , 189 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,190 , 191 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.192 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,193 but not all194 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.195

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.196 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.197 , 198

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.199

    • Cytarabine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.210 , 211 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,212 , 213 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.214 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,215 but not all,216 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.217

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.218 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.219 , 220

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.221

    • Didanosine

      Severe peripheral neuropathy (painful sensations due to nerve damage in the hands and feet) often develops in people taking didanosine or other drugs in its class. People with peripheral neuropathy who were taking one of these drugs were found to be deficient in acetyl-L-carnitine.226 In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 1,500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine twice a day resulted in improvement in the neuropathy after six months in people taking didanosine or related drugs.227 Similar benefits were seen in another study that used the same amount of acetyl-L-carnitine.228

    • Docetaxel

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.229 , 230 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,231 , 232 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.233 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,234 but not all235 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.236

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.237 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.238 , 239

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.240

    • Doxorubicin

      Animal research suggests carnitine may prevent doxorubicin's toxicity.245

    • Erlotinib

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.265

    • Etoposide

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.281 , 282 , 283 , 284 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.285 , 286 , 287 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Floxuridine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.302 , 303 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,304 , 305 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.306 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,307 but not all,308 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.309

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.310 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.311 , 312

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.313

    • Fludarabine

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.334

    • Fluorouracil

      Chemotherapy can injure cancer cells by creating oxidative damage. As a result, some oncologists recommend that patients avoid supplementing antioxidants if they are undergoing chemotherapy. Limited test tube research occasionally does support the idea that an antioxidant can interfere with oxidative damage to cancer cells.349 However, most scientific research does not support this supposition.

      A modified form of vitamin A has been reported to work synergistically with chemotherapy in test tube research.350 Vitamin C appears to increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy in animals351 and with human breast cancer cells in test tube research.352 In a double-blind study, Japanese researchers found that the combination of vitamin E , vitamin C, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) -all antioxidants-protected against chemotherapy-induced heart damage without interfering with the action of the chemotherapy.353

      A comprehensive review of antioxidants and chemotherapy leaves open the question of whether supplemental antioxidants definitely help people with chemotherapy side effects, but the article strongly suggests that antioxidants need not be avoided for fear that the actions of chemotherapy would be interfered with.354

      A new formulation of selenium (Seleno-Kappacarrageenan) was found to reduce kidney damage and white blood cell-lowering effects of cisplatin in one human study. However, the level used in this study (4,000 mcg per day) is potentially toxic and should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.355

      Glutathione , the main antioxidant found within cells, is frequently depleted in individuals on chemotherapy and/or radiation. Preliminary studies have found that intravenously injected glutathione may decrease some of the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as diarrhea .356

    • Hydroxyurea

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.371 , 372 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,373 , 374 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.375 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,376 but not all,377 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.378

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.379 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.380 , 381

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.382

    • Ifosfamide

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.396 , 397 , 398 , 399 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.400 , 401 , 402 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Interferon Alfa-2a
      In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.407
    • Interferon Alfa-2B
      In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.408
    • Interferon Alfacon-1
      In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.409
    • Irinotecan

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.424 , 425 , 426 , 427 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.428 , 429 , 430 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Isoniazid
      Some drugs used to treat tuberculosis (including isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) may cause liver damage. In a double-blind study of patients starting treatment for tuberculosis with the combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, supplementation with L-carnitine (1,000 mg twice a day for 4 weeks) significantly decreased the number of patients who developed drug-induced liver damage (17% with L-carnitine, 32% with placebo).431
    • Lomustine

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.452 , 453 , 454 , 455 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.456 , 457 , 458 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Mechlorethamine

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.473 , 474 , 475 , 476 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.477 , 478 , 479 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Melphalan

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.500

    • Mercaptopurine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.510 , 511 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,512 , 513 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.514 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,515 but not all,516 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.517

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.518 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.519 , 520

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.521

    • Methotrexate

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.523

    • Paclitaxel

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks, has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by paclitaxel.550

    • Peginterferon Alfa-2a
      In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.552
    • Peginterferon Alfa-2b
      In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.553
    • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.560 , 561 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,562 , 563 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.564 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,565 but not all,566 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.567

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.568 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.569 , 570

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.571

    • Pyrazinamide
      Some drugs used to treat tuberculosis (including isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) may cause liver damage. In a double-blind study of patients starting treatment for tuberculosis with the combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, supplementation with L-carnitine (1,000 mg twice a day for 4 weeks) significantly decreased the number of patients who developed drug-induced liver damage (17% with L-carnitine, 32% with placebo).581
    • Ribavirin
      In a randomized trial, patients with chronic hepatitis C who were being treated with Peg-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day) or no L-carnitine (control group). Compared with the control group, fewer patients in the L-carnitine group had to reduce the medication dosage or discontinue treatment because of side effects such as anemia or a decline in the white blood cell count.582
    • Rifampin
      Some drugs used to treat tuberculosis (including isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) may cause liver damage. In a double-blind study of patients starting treatment for tuberculosis with the combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, supplementation with L-carnitine (1,000 mg twice a day for 4 weeks) significantly decreased the number of patients who developed drug-induced liver damage (17% with L-carnitine, 32% with placebo).583
    • Stavudine

      Severe peripheral neuropathy (painful sensations due to nerve damage in the hands and feet) often develops in people taking stavudine or other drugs in its class. People with peripheral neuropathy who were taking one of these drugs were found to be deficient in acetyl-L-carnitine.586 In a preliminary trial, supplementing with 1,500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine twice a day resulted in improvement in the neuropathy after six months in people taking stavudine or related drugs.587 Similar benefits were seen in another study that used the same amount of acetyl-L-carnitine.588

    • Thioguanine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.597 , 598 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,599 , 600 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.601 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,602 but not all,603 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.604

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.605 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.606 , 607

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.608

    • Thiotepa

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by cisplatin.618

    • Uracil Mustard

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.635 , 636 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,637 , 638 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.639 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,640 but not all,641 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.642

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.643 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.644 , 645

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.646

    • Vinblastine

      Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.668

    • Vincristine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.677 , 678 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,679 , 680 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.681 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,682 but not all,683 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.684

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.685 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.686 , 687

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.688

    Support Medicine

    • Allopurinol

      In a preliminary study, seven of eight individuals with severe mental depression showed improvement when they took L-tryptophan and allopurinol;13 of these seven, five experienced full remission. Controlled research is necessary to determine whether this combination might be more effective for severe depression than standard treatment.

    • Amitriptyline

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .14 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.15 , 16

    • Amoxapine

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .17 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.18 , 19

    • Benztropine

      Akathisia is an adverse reaction to anti-psychotic drugs, where a person has an uncontrollable desire to be in constant motion. One preliminary report suggested that 4,000 mg of L-tryptophan and 25 mg niacin per day taken with benztropine enhances the treatment of akathisia.22 Controlled studies are necessary to determine whether L-tryptophan and niacin supplements might benefit most people taking benztropine who experience adverse reactions to anti-psychotic drugs.

    • Clomipramine

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .183 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.184 , 185

    • Desipramine

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .222 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.223 , 224

    • Doxepin

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .242 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.243 , 244

    • Haloperidol

      Two double-blind studies have found that 0.4-0.8 mg/kg body weight per day of glycine can reduce the so-called negative symptoms of schizophrenia when combined with haloperidol and related drugs.358 , 359 Negative symptoms include reduced emotional expression or general activity. The action of glycine in combination with the drugs was greater than the drugs alone, suggesting a synergistic action. Another double-blind study using approximately half the amount in the positive studies could not find any benefit from adding glycine to antipsychotic drug therapy.360 Patients with low blood levels of glycine appeared to improve the most when given glycine in addition to their antipsychotic drugs.361 No side effects were noticed in these studies, even when more than 30 grams of glycine were given daily.

    • Imipramine

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .404 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.405 , 406

    • Lithium

      A small double-blind study found that combining 2-4 grams three times per day of L-tryptophan with lithium significantly improved symptoms in people with bipolar disorder or a mild form of schizophrenia.437 L-tryptophan is only available from doctors. It should be taken several hours before or after meals.

    • Lomustine

      Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.438 , 439 In fact, animal studies show that glutamine may actually decrease tumor growth while increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy,440 , 441 though such effects have not yet been studied in humans.

      Glutamine has successfully reduced chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. In one trial, people were given 4 grams of glutamine in an oral rinse, which was swished around the mouth and then swallowed twice per day.442 Thirteen of fourteen people in the study had fewer days with mouth sores as a result. These excellent results have been duplicated in some,443 but not all,444 double-blind research. In another study, patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan had significantly fewer episodes of oral ulcers and bleeding when they took 6 grams of glutamine four times daily along with the chemotherapy.445

      One double-blind trial suggested that 6 grams of glutamine taken three times per day can decrease diarrhea caused by chemotherapy.446 However, other studies using higher amounts or intravenous glutamine have not reported this effect.447 , 448

      Intravenous use of glutamine in people undergoing bone marrow transplants, a procedure sometimes used to allow very high amounts of chemotherapy to be used, has led to reduced hospital stays, leading to a savings of over $21,000 for each patient given glutamine.449

    • Nortriptyline

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .525 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.526 , 527

    • Olanzapine

      In a small double-blind study, people with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine experienced an improvement in their symptoms when glycine was added to their treatment regimen.528 The initial amount of glycine used was 4 grams per day; this was increased gradually over a period of 10 to 17 days to a maximum of 0.8 grams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day.

    • Protriptyline

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .578 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.579 , 580

    • Risperidone

      In a small double-blind study, people with schizophrenia being treated with risperidone experienced an improvement in their symptoms when glycine was added to their treatment regimen.584 The initial amount of glycine used was 4 grams per day; this was increased gradually over a period of 10 to 17 days to a maximum of 0.8 grams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day.

    • Selegiline

      Both L-tryptophan and 5-HTP have been used to treat depression . One controlled study showed that taking selegiline at the same time as 5-HTP enhanced the antidepressant effect when compared with 5-HTP alone.585 Further research is needed to determine whether taking selegiline and 5-HTP together might result in unwanted side effects.

    • Trimipramine

      Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .624 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

      The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.625 , 626

    Reduces Effectiveness

    • Clozapine

      The use of glycine may interfere with the efficacy of clozapine as an antipsychotic drug. In a double-blind trial, people with chronic, treatment-resistant schizophrenia were given clozapine (400-1,200 mg per day) and either glycine (30 g per day) or placebo for 12 weeks.696 The combination of clozapine and glycine was not effective at decreasing symptoms. In contrast, participants who took clozapine without glycine had a 35% reduction in some symptoms. Therefore, the combination should be avoided until more is known.

    Potential Negative Interaction

    • Almotriptan

      Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with eletriptan could increase eletriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with eletriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

    • Citalopram

      Citalopram increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with citalopram may increase citalopram-induced side effects. Dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescription from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine (a drug that has similar actions as citalopram) caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.695

      Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase their effectiveness. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with citalopram or other SSRIs, unless a doctor is closely monitoring the combination. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with citalopram or other SSRIs.

    • Eletriptan

      Eletriptan works by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with eletriptan could increase eletriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with eletriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

    • Escitalopram

      Escitalopram increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with escitalopram may increase escitalopram-induced side effects. Dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescription from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine (a drug that has similar actions as escitalopram) caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.697

      Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase their effectiveness. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with escitalopram or other SSRIs, unless a doctor is closely monitoring the combination. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with escitalopram or other SSRIs.

    • Fluoxetine

      L-tryptophan is an amino acid found in protein-rich foods. Foods rich in L-tryptophan are not believed to cause any problems during fluoxetine use. However, dietary supplements of L-tryptophan taken during fluoxetine treatment have been reported to cause headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.698

    • Fluvoxamine

      Fluvoxamine works by increasing serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with fluvoxamine may increase fluvoxamine-induced side effects. Until more is known, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should not be taken with any SSRI drug, including fluvoxamine.

    • Frovatriptan

      Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them at the same time as 5-HT1 agonists could increase unwanted side effects. However, at the time of this writing there are no known interactions with 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.699

    • Naratriptan

      Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them at the same time as 5-HT1 agonists could increase unwanted side effects. However, at the time of this writing there are no known interactions with 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.700

    • Paroxetine

      Paroxetine increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with paroxetine may increase paroxetine-induced side effects. Dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescriptions from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.701 Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase the effectiveness of the latter. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with paroxetine or other SSRIs, unless the combination is being closely monitored by a doctor. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with paroxtine or other SSRIs.

      On the other hand, the combination of 45 mg DL-tryptophan (a synthetic variation of L-tryptophan) per pound of body weight (a relatively high dose) with zimelidine, a drug with a similar action to paroxetine, did not cause these side effects in another trial.702

    • Rizatriptan

      Triptans work by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them at the same time as 5-HT1 agonists could increase unwanted side effects. However, at the time of this writing there are no known interactions with 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.703

    • Sertraline

      Sertraline increases serotonin activity in the brain. 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking either of these compounds with sertraline may increase sertraline-induced side effects.

      In one report, dietary supplements of L-tryptophan (available only by prescriptions from special compounding pharmacists) taken with paroxetine (a drug similar to sertraline) caused headache, sweating, dizziness, agitation, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms.704 On the other hand, the combination of 45 mg DL-tryptophan (a synthetic variation of L-tryptophan) per pound of body weight (a relatively high dose) with zimelidine, a drug with a similar action to sertraline, did not cause these side effects in another trial.705 Some doctors have used small amounts of L-tryptophan in combination with SSRIs, to increase the effectiveness of the latter. However, because of the potential for side effects, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan should never be taken in combination with sertraline or other SSRIs, unless the combination is being closely monitored by a doctor. Foods rich in L-tryptophan do not appear to interact with sertraline or other SSRIs.

    • Sibutramine

      The amino acids L-tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are occasionally used to treat mental depression . Taking sibutramine with L-tryptophan or 5-HTP might result in a rare, but serious group of symptoms known as "serotonin syndrome."706 Symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome may include confusion, anxiety, muscle weakness, incoordination, and vomiting. Therefore, individuals taking sibutramine should avoid supplementing with L-tryptophan and 5-HTP.

    • Sumatriptan

      Sumatriptan works by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with sumatriptan could increase sumatriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with sumatriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

    • Tramadol

      Tramadol, which blocks serotonin reuptake in the brain, has been associated with two cases of serotonin syndrome.707 , 708 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain. While no interactions have yet been reported with tramadol and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan, taking 5-HTP or L-tryptophan with tramadol may increase the risk of tramadol-induced side effects, including serotonin syndrome.

    • Venlafaxine

      Venlafaxine, a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been associated with several cases of serotonin syndrome.709 , 710 , 711 , 712 5-HTP and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with venlafaxine may increase venlafaxine-induced side effects. While no interactions with venlafaxine and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan have been reported, until more is known, people taking venlafaxine are cautioned to avoid 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

    • Zolmitriptan

      Zolmitriptan works by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain. 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with zolmitriptan could increase zolmitriptan-induced side effects. However, no interactions have yet been reported with zolmitriptan and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

    • Zolpidem

      Nine cases of zolpidem-induced hallucinations associated with serotonin reuptake inhibiting antidepressants have been reported, some lasting for several hours.713 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) and L-tryptophan are converted to serotonin in the brain, and taking them with zolpidem may increase zolpidem-induced hallucinations, though no interactions have yet been reported with zolpidem and 5-HTP or L-tryptophan.

    Explanation Required

    • Allopurinol

      People who have Duchenne muscular dystrophy have low levels of L-carnitine in their muscles. Allopurinol restores L-carnitine to normal levels, resulting in improved muscle strength.714 Whether L-carnitine supplementation might improve this effect of allopurinol has not been investigated.

    • Clorazepate

      Test tube studies show that L-tryptophan and clorazepate dipotassium interact in the blood in such a way that the actions of the drug may be enhanced when high amounts of L-tryptophan are ingested.715 Controlled research is needed to determine the significance of this interaction and to investigate possible interactions between clorazepate and 5-hydroxytryptophan , a supplement related to L-tryptophan.

    • Gabapentin

      Several controlled and preliminary studies showed that multiple drug therapy for seizures results in dramatic reductions in blood carnitine levels.716 , 717 , 718 Further controlled research is needed to determine whether children taking anticonvulsants might benefit by supplementing with L-carnitine, since current studies yield conflicting results. For example, one controlled study indicated that children taking valproic acid and carbamazepine received no benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.719 However, another small study revealed that children taking valproic acid experienced less fatigue and excessive sleepiness following L-carnitine supplementation.720 Despite the lack of well-controlled studies, individuals who are taking anticonvulsants and experiencing side effects might benefit from supplementing with L-carnitine.

    • Paclitaxel

      Glutathione , the main antioxidant found within cells, is frequently depleted in individuals on chemotherapy and/or radiation. Preliminary studies have found that intravenously injected glutathione may decrease some of the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as diarrhea .721

    • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

      High-dose cisplatin chemotherapy is associated with kidney toxicity and damage, which may be reduced by glutathione administration.722 , 723 , 724 , 725 Nerve damage is another frequent complication of high amounts of cisplatin. Preliminary evidence has shown that glutathione injections may protect nerve tissue during cisplatin therapy without reducing cisplatin's anti-tumor activity.726 , 727 , 728 There is no evidence that glutathione taken by mouth has the same benefits.

    • Valproate

      Valproic acid causes depletion of carnitine in children,729 and blood carnitine levels are often low in people taking valproic acid for long periods of time. While there have been several case reports of valproic acid-related carnitine deficiency causing abdominal pain in children, there is controversy about the need for carnitine supplements in children taking valproic acid.730 , 731

      Complete disappearance of severe valproic acid-induced abdominal pain was achieved in one child with intractable epilepsy immediately following the introduction of 300 mg per day of L-carnitine .732 Carnitine supplementation (50 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight) has protected children from valproic acid-induced increases in blood ammonia levels in some research,733 though other published work has questioned whether the depletion of carnitine and the increase in blood ammonia levels (both caused by valproic acid) are actually related to each other.734 This last report found that the depletion of carnitine was significantly more severe when epileptics were taking valproic acid together with other anti-seizure medications. A double-blind, crossover study found that carnitine supplementation (100 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight) was no more effective than placebo in improving the sense of well-being in children treated with valproic acid.735 To date, the question of whether carnitine supplementation is beneficial for people taking valproic acid remains unresolved.736 However, a panel of pediatric neurologists and experts on L-carnitine supplementation strongly recommended oral L-carnitine supplementation for all infants and children taking valproic acid, as well as for adults with carnitine deficiency syndromes, people with valproic acid-induced liver and kidney toxicity, people on kidney dialysis, and premature infants on total parenteral nutrition (intravenous feeding). The panel recommended an amount of 100 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, up to a maximum of 2 grams per day.737

    The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers' package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

    Side Effects

    Side Effects

    Many Western diets provide more protein than the body needs, causing excess nitrogen to be excreted as urea in urine. The excess nitrogen has been linked in some studies with reduced kidney function in old age. Some, but not all studies have found that when people have impaired kidney function, restricting dietary intake of protein slows the rate of decline of kidney function.738

    Excessive protein intake also can increase excretion of calcium , and some evidence has linked high-protein diets with osteoporosis ,739 particularly regarding animal protein.740 On the other hand, some protein is needed for bone formation. A double-blind study showed that elderly people whose diets provided slightly less than the recommended amount of protein suffered less bone loss if they consumed an additional 20 grams of protein per day.741 A doctor can help people assess their protein intake and needs.

    Amino acids include several different nutrients, each of which has the potential for side effects. Look up the unique side effects for each and discuss the potential benefits and risks with your doctor or pharmacist:

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    32. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    33. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

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    36. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    37. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    38. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    39. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    40. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    41. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    42. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    43. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    44. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    45. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    46. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    47. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    48. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    49. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    50. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    51. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    52. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    53. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    54. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    55. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    56. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    57. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    58. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    59. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    60. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    61. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    62. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    63. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    64. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    65. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    66. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    67. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    68. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    69. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    70. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    71. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    72. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    73. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    74. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    75. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    76. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    77. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

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    84. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    85. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    86. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    87. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    88. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    89. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    90. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    91. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    92. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    93. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    94. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    95. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    96. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    97. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    98. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    99. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    100. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    101. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    102. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    103. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    104. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    105. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    106. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    107. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

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    109. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    110. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    111. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    112. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    113. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    114. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    115. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    116. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    117. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    118. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    119. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    120. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    121. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    122. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    123. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    124. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    125. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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    127. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    128. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    129. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    130. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    131. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    132. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    133. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    134. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    135. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    136. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    137. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    138. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    139. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    140. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    141. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    142. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    143. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    144. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    145. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    146. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    147. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    148. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    149. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    150. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    151. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    152. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    153. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    154. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    155. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    156. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    157. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    158. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    159. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    160. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    161. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    162. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    163. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    164. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    165. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    166. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    167. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    168. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    169. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    170. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    171. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    172. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    173. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    174. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    175. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    176. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    177. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    178. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    179. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    180. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    181. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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    189. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    190. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    191. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    192. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    193. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    194. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    195. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    196. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    197. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    198. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    199. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    200. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    201. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    202. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    203. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    204. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    205. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    206. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    207. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    208. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    209. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    210. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    211. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    212. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    213. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    214. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    215. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    216. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    217. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    218. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    219. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    220. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    221. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    222. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

    223. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

    224. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

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    230. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    231. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    232. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    233. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    234. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    235. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    236. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    237. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    238. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    239. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    240. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    241. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    242. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

    243. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

    244. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

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    246. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    247. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    248. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    249. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    250. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    251. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    252. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    253. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    254. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    255. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    256. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    257. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    258. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    259. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    260. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    261. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    262. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

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    264. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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    420. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    421. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    422. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    423. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    424. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    425. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    426. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    427. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    428. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    429. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    430. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

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    433. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

    434. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

    435. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    436. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

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    439. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    440. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    441. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    442. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    443. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    444. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    445. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    446. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    447. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    448. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    449. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    450. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    451. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    452. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    453. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    454. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    455. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    456. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    457. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    458. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    459. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    460. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    461. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    462. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    463. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    464. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    465. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    466. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    467. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    468. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    469. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    470. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    471. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    472. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    473. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    474. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    475. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    476. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    477. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    478. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    479. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    480. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    481. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    482. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    483. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    484. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    485. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    486. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    487. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    488. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    489. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    490. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    491. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    492. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    493. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    494. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    495. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    496. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    497. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    498. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    499. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    500. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    501. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    502. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    503. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    504. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    505. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    506. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    507. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    508. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    509. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    510. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    511. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    512. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    513. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    514. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    515. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    516. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    517. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    518. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    519. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    520. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    521. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    522. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    523. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

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    532. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    533. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

    534. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    535. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    536. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    537. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    538. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    539. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    540. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    541. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

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    543. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    544. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    545. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    546. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

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    548. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

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    550. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    551. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    552. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, et al. L-carnitine supplementation improves hematological pattern in patients affected by HCV treated with Peg interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:4414-20.

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    554. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

    555. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

    556. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

    557. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    558. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

    559. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    560. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    561. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    562. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    563. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    564. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    565. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    566. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    567. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    568. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    569. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    570. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    571. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    572. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    573. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

    574. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

    575. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

    576. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    577. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

    578. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

    579. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

    580. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

    581. Hatamkhani S, Khalili H, Karimzadeh I, et al. Carnitine for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a randomized, clinical trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014;29:997-1004.

    582. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, et al. L-carnitine supplementation improves hematological pattern in patients affected by HCV treated with Peg interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:4414-20.

    583. Hatamkhani S, Khalili H, Karimzadeh I, et al. Carnitine for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a randomized, clinical trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014;29:997-1004.

    584. Heresco-Levy U, Ermilov M, Lichtenberg P, et al. High-dose glycine added to olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2004;55:165-71.

    585. Mendlewicz J, Youdim MB. Antidepressant potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan by L-deprenil in affective illness. J Affect Disord 1980;2:137-46.

    586. Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185-90.

    587. Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS2004;18:1549-60.

    588. Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials 2005;6:344-50.

    589. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    590. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    591. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    592. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    593. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    594. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    595. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    596. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    597. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    598. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    599. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    600. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    601. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    602. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    603. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    604. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    605. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    606. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    607. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    608. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    609. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    610. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    611. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    612. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    613. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    614. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    615. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    616. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    617. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    618. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    619. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

    620. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

    621. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

    622. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    623. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

    624. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395-414.

    625. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384-9.

    626. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276-8.

    627. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    628. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    629. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    630. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    631. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    632. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    633. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    634. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    635. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    636. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    637. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    638. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    639. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    640. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    641. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    642. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    643. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    644. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    645. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    646. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    647. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    648. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    649. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    650. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    651. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    652. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    653. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    654. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    655. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    656. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    657. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    658. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    659. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    660. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    661. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    662. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    663. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    664. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    665. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    666. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    667. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    668. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    669. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746-50.

    670. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    671. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    672. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

    673. Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, et al. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 1991;18:253-9 [review].

    674. Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997;8:569-73.

    675. Colombo N, Bini S, Miceli D, et al. Weekly cisplatin ± glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995;5:81-6.

    676. Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:26-32.

    677. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    678. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    679. Klimberg VS, McClellan JL. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg 1996;172:418-24.

    680. Souba WW. Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 1993;218:715-28 [review].

    681. Skubitz KM, Anderson PM. Oral glutamine to prevent chemotherapy induced stomatitis: a pilot study. J Lab Clin Med 1996;127:223-8.

    682. Anderson PM, Schroeder G, Skubitz KM. Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 1998;83:1433-9.

    683. Okuno SH, Woodhouse CO, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III controlled evaluation of glutamine for decreasing stomatitis in patients receiving fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:258-61.

    684. Cockerham MB, Weinberger BB, Lerchie SB. Oral glutamine for the prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose paclitaxel and melphalan for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:300-3.

    685. Muscaritoli M, Micozzi A, Conversano L, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity Eur J Cancer 1997;33:319-20.

    686. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A double-blind randomized study Nutr 1997;13:748-51.

    687. van Zaanen HCT, van der Lelie H, Timmer JG, et al. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer 1994;74:2879-84.

    688. MacBurney M, Young LS, Ziegler TR, Wilmore DW. A cost-evaluation of Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1263-6.

    689. Desai TK, Maliakkal J, Kinzie JL, et al. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:708-11.

    690. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I. Reduction in blood free carnitine levels in association with changes in sodium valproate (VPA) disposition in epileptic patients treated with VPA and other anti-epileptic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:91-3.

    691. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

    692. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

    693. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    694. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

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    717. Morita J, Yuge K, Yoshino M. Hypocarnitinemia in the handicapped individuals who receive a polypharmacy of antiepileptic drugs. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:203-5.

    718. Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, Landrigan EA. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbitol, valproic acid, phenytoin and carbamazepine in children. J Pedr 1991;119:799-802.

    719. Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications?: A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5.

    720. Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4.

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    722. Fontanelli R, Spatti G, Raspagliesi F, et al. A preoperative single course of high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin with glutathione protection in bulky stage IB/II carcinoma of the cervix. Ann Oncol 1992;3:117-21.

    723. Plaxe S, Freddo J, Kim S, et al. Phase I trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:82-6.

    724. Di Re F, Bohm S, Oriana S, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathione protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1990;25:355-60.

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