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    Potassium

    Uses

    Potassium is an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, levels of acidity, blood pressure , and neuromuscular function. This mineral also plays a critical role in the transmission of electrical impulses in the heart.

    What Are Star Ratings?

    Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

    2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

    1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

    This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

    Used for Why
    3 Stars
    Hypertension in People Not Taking Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    2,400 mg per under a doctor's supervision
    Potassium may be effective at lowering blood pressure, according to an analysis of trials.

    Potassium supplements in the amount of at least 2,400 mg per day lower blood pressure, according to an analysis of 33 trials.1 However, potassium supplements greater than 100 mg per tablet require a prescription, and the low-dose potassium supplements available without a prescription can irritate the stomach if taken in large amounts. Moreover, some people, such as those taking potassium-sparing diuretics, should not take potassium supplements. Therefore, the use of potassium supplements for lowering blood pressure should only be done under the care of a doctor.

    3 Stars
    Kidney Stones and Abdominal Pain (Magnesium Citrate)
    1,600 mg daily potassium as citrate and 500 mg daily of magnesium as citrate
    Supplementing with a combination of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate may reduce the recurrence rate of kidney stones.
    Some citrate research conducted with people who have a history of kidney stones involves supplementation with a combination of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate. In one double-blind trial, the recurrence rate of kidney stones dropped from 64% to 13% for those receiving high amounts of both supplements.2 In that trial, people were instructed to take six pills per day-enough potassium citrate to provide 1,600 mg of potassium and enough magnesium citrate to provide 500 mg of magnesium. Both placebo and citrate groups were also advised to restrict salt, sugar, animal protein, and foods rich in oxalate. Other trials have also shown that potassium and magnesium citrate supplementation reduces kidney stone recurrences.3
    2 Stars
    Cardiac Arrhythmia
    1,000 mg daily under medical supervision
    In one study, people taking hydrochlorothiazide for high blood pressure saw a significant reduction in arrhythmias when they supplemented with potassium.

    Patients taking hydrochlorothiazide for high blood pressure had a significant reduction in arrhythmias when supplemented with 1 gram twice per day of potassium hydrochloride (supplying 1040 mg per day of elemental potassium). Those results were not improved by adding 500 mg twice per day of magnesium hydroxide (supplying 500 mg per day of elemental magnesium) to the potassium.4 Low serum concentrations of potassium were found to be associated with a higher incidence of arrhythmia in a large population study.5

    2 Stars
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Magnesium Aspartate)
    1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day
    Potassium-magnesium aspartate has shown benefits for chronically fatigued people in some trials.

    The combination of potassium aspartate and magnesium aspartate has shown benefits for chronically fatigued people in double-blind trials.6 , 7 , 8 , 9 However, these trials were performed before the criteria for diagnosing CFS was established, so whether these people were suffering from CFS is unclear. Usually 1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day, and results have been reported within one to two weeks.

    2 Stars
    Congestive Heart Failure
    Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
    Potassium can be beneficial for heart patients, but talk to your doctor first. Several drugs for CHF may cause potassium retention, making extra potassium dangerous.

    Magnesium deficiency frequently occurs in people with CHF, and such a deficiency may lead to heart arrhythmias . Magnesium supplements have reduced the risk of these arrhythmias.10 People with CHF are often given drugs that deplete both magnesium and potassium; a deficiency of either of these minerals may lead to an arrhythmia.11 Many doctors suggest magnesium supplements of 300 mg per day.

    Whole fruit and fruit and vegetable juice, which are high in potassium, are also recommended by some doctors. One study showed that elderly men who consumed food prepared with potassium-enriched salt (containing about half potassium chloride and half sodium chloride) had a 70% reduction in deaths due to heart failure and a significant reduction in medical costs for cardiovascular disease, when compared with men who continued to use regular salt.12 While increasing potassium intake can be beneficial for heart patients, this dietary change should be discussed with a healthcare provider, because several drugs given to people with CHF may actually cause retention of potassium, making dietary potassium, even from fruit, dangerous.

    2 Stars
    Premenstrual Syndrome
    600 mg daily
    A preliminary trial found that women with severe PMS who took potassium supplements had complete resolution of PMS symptoms within four menstrual cycles.

    A preliminary, uncontrolled trial found that women with severe PMS who took potassium supplements had complete resolution of PMS symptoms within four menstrual cycles.13 Most participants took 400 mg of potassium per day as potassium gluconate plus 200 mg of potassium per day as potassium chloride for the first two cycles, then switched to solely the gluconate form (600 mg potassium per day) for the remainder of the year-long trial. Without exception, all of the women found their symptoms (i.e., bloating, fatigue, irritability, etc.) decreasing gradually over three cycles and disappearing completely by the fourth cycle. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

    How It Works

    How to Use It

    The best way to obtain extra potassium is to eat several pieces of fruit per day, as well as liberal amounts of vegetables. The amount of potassium found in the diet ranges from about 2.5 grams to about 5.8 grams per day. The amount allowed in supplements-99 mg per tablet or capsule-is very low, considering that one banana can contain 500 mg. Check with your physician before taking large amounts of potassium since it may irritate the stomach.

    Where to Find It

    Most fruits are excellent sources of potassium. Beans, milk, and vegetables contain significant amounts of potassium.

    Possible Deficiencies

    So-called primitive diets provided much greater levels of potassium than modern diets, which may provide too little. Gross deficiencies, however, are rare except in cases of prolonged vomiting, diarrhea , or use of "potassium-depleting" diuretic drugs. People taking one of these drugs are often advised by their doctor to take supplemental potassium. Prescription amounts of potassium provide more than the amounts sold over the counter but not more than the amount found in several pieces of fruit.

    Interactions

    Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

    Potassium and sodium work together in the body to maintain muscle tone, blood pressure, water balance, and other functions. Many researchers believe that part of the blood pressure problem caused by too much salt (which contains sodium) is made worse by too little dietary potassium.

    People with kidney failure should not take potassium supplements, except under careful medical supervision.

    Interactions with Medicines

    Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

    Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

    Replenish Depleted Nutrients

    • Albuterol

      Therapeutic amounts of intravenous salbutamol (albuterol) in four healthy people were associated with decreased plasma levels of calcium , magnesium , phosphate, and potassium.22 Decreased potassium levels have been reported with oral,23 intramuscular, and subcutaneous albuterol administration.24 How frequently this effect occurs is not known; whether these changes are preventable through diet or supplementation is also unknown.

    • Bendroflumethiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,25 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.26 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.27

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.28 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.29 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.30 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.31

    • Bisacodyl

      Prolonged and frequent use of stimulant laxatives, including bisacodyl, may cause excessive and unwanted loss of water, potassium, and other nutrients from the body.32 , 33 Bisacodyl should be used for a maximum of one week, or as directed on the package label. Excessive use of any laxative can cause depletion of many nutrients. In order to protect against multiple nutrient deficiencies, it is important to not overuse laxatives.34 People with constipation should consult with their doctor or pharmacist before using bisacodyl.

    • Bumetanide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium. Loop diuretics may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,35 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.36 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.37

      People taking loop diuretics should be monitored by their doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.38 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake is another way of supplementing potassium. Magnesium supplementation is typically 300-400 mg per day.

    • Busulfan

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.39 , 40 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.41 , 42 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.43 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Capecitabine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.44 , 45 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.46 , 47 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.48 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Carboplatin

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.49 , 50 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.51 , 52 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.53 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Carmustine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.54 , 55 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.56 , 57 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.58 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Chlorambucil

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.59 , 60 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.61 , 62 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.63 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Chlorothiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,64 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.65 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.66

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.67 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.68 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.69 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.70

    • Chlorthalidone

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,71 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.72 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.73

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.74 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.75 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.76 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.77

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    • Cisplatin

      Cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.78 , 79 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.80 , 81 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.82 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Cladribine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.83 , 84 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.85 , 86 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.87 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Colchicine

      Colchicine has been associated with impaired absorption of beta-carotene , fat, lactose (milk sugar), potassium, and sodium.88

    • Cortisone

      Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.89 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    • Cytarabine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.90 , 91 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.92 , 93 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.94 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Dexamethasone

      Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.95 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    • Docetaxel

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.96 , 97 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.98 , 99 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.100 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

      Glutathione , the main antioxidant found within cells, is frequently depleted in individuals on chemotherapy and/or radiation. Preliminary studies have found that intravenously injected glutathione may decrease some of the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as diarrhea .101

    • Docusate

      Taking docusate increases the amount of potassium excreted from the body in the stool.102 Whether people taking docusate for long periods of time need to increase their intake of potassium is unknown.

    • Erlotinib

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.103 , 104 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.105 , 106 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.107 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Etoposide

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.108 , 109 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.110 , 111 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.112 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Felodipine

      Felodipine can lead to increased excretion of potassium.113 A potassium deficiency may result if potassium intake is not sufficient. People taking felodipine should eat a high-potassium diet and be checked regularly for low blood potassium by a doctor.

    • Floxuridine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.114 , 115 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.116 , 117 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.118 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Fludarabine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.119 , 120 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.121 , 122 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.123 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Furosemide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium. Loop diuretics may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,124 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.125 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.126

      People taking loop diuretics should be monitored by their doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.127 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake is another way of supplementing potassium. Magnesium supplementation is typically 300-400 mg per day.

    • Gentamicin

      Gentamicin has been associated with hypokalemia (low potassium levels) in humans.128

    • Hydrochlorothiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,129 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.130 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.131

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.132 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.133 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.134 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.135

    • Hydroflumethiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,136 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.137 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.138

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.139 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.140 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.141 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.142

    • Hydroxyurea

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.143 , 144 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.145 , 146 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.147 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Ifosfamide

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.148 , 149 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.150 , 151 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.152 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Indapamide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,153 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.154 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.155

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.156 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.157 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.158 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.159

    • Irinotecan

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.161 , 162 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.163 , 164 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.165 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Lomustine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.166 , 167 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.168 , 169 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.170 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Mechlorethamine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.171 , 172 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.173 , 174 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.175 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Melphalan

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.176 , 177 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.178 , 179 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.180 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Mercaptopurine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.181 , 182 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.183 , 184 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.185 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

      Many chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhea , lack of appetite, vomiting, and damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent anti-nausea prescription medications are often effective. Nonetheless, nutritional deficiencies still occur.186 People undergoing chemotherapy should talk to their doctor about whether supplementing with a multivitamin-mineral will protect them against deficiencies.

    • Methotrexate

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.187 , 188 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.189 , 190 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.191 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Methyclothiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,192 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.193 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.194

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.195 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.196 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.197 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.198

    • Methylprednisolone

      Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.199 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    • Metolazone

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,3 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.4 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.5

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.6 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.7 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.8 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.9

    • Mineral Oil

      Mineral oil has interfered with the absorption of many nutrients, including beta-carotene , phosphorus , potassium, and vitamins A , D , K , and E in some,200 but not all,201 research. Taking mineral oil on an empty stomach may reduce this interference. It makes sense to take a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement two hours before or after mineral oil. It is important to read labels, because many multivitamins do not contain vitamin K or contain inadequate (less than 100 mcg per day) amounts.

    • Neomycin

      Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium , carbohydrates, beta-carotene , fats, folic acid , iron , magnesium , potassium, sodium, and vitamin A , vitamin B12 , vitamin D , and vitamin K .202 , 203 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

    • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.204 , 205 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.206 , 207 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.208 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Polythiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,209 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.210 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.211

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.212 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.213 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.214 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.215

    • Prednisolone

      Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.216 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    • Prednisone

      Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.217 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    • Salsalate

      Salsalate and aspirin are rapidly converted in the body to salicylic acid. Taking large amounts of aspirin can result in lower than normal blood levels of potassium,219 though it is not known whether this change is significant. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether people taking salsalate are at risk for potassium deficiency.

    • Sulindac

      Four people who took sulindac developed high blood levels of potassium, which returned to normal within a few days after the drug was stopped.220 Controlled research is needed to determine whether potassium supplements or a high potassium diet might aggravate this problem. Until more information is available, people taking sulindac and potassium supplements, potassium containing salt substitutes, or large amounts of fruits and vegetables should have potassium blood levels checked regularly by their doctor.

    • Tetracycline

      Tetracycline can interfere with the activity of folic acid , potassium, and vitamin B2 , vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 , vitamin C , and vitamin K .221 This is generally not a problem when taking tetracycline for two weeks or less. People taking tetracycline for longer than two weeks should ask their doctor about vitamin and mineral supplementation. Taking 500 mg vitamin C simultaneously with tetracycline was shown to increase blood levels of tetracycline in one study.222 The importance of this interaction is unknown.

      Taking large amounts of niacinamide, a form of vitamin B3 , can suppress inflammation in the body. According to numerous preliminary reports, niacinamide, given in combination with tetracycline or minocycline , may be effective against bullous pemphigoid, a benign, autoimmune blistering disease of the skin.223 , 224 , 225 , 226 , 227 , 228 , 229 Preliminary evidence also suggests a similar beneficial interaction may exist between tetracycline and niacinamide in the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis .230 , 231

    • Theophylline

      Preliminary evidence indicates that theophylline can promote potassium and magnesium deficiency.232 , 233 Some doctors have noted a tendency for persons on theophylline to become deficient in these minerals. Therefore, supplementing with these minerals may be necessary during theophylline therapy. Consult with a doctor to make this determination.

    • Thioguanine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.234 , 235 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.236 , 237 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.238 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Thiotepa

      Cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.240 , 241 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.242 , 243 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.244 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Tobramycin

      Calcium , magnesium , and potassium depletion requiring prolonged replacement were reported in a child with tetany who had just completed a three-week course of i.v. tobramycin.245 The authors suggest this may have been due to kidney damage related to the drug. Seventeen patients with cancer developed calcium, magnesium, and potassium depletion after treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics, including tobramycin.246 The authors suggested a possible potentiating action of tobramycin-induced mineral depletion by chemotherapy drugs, especially doxorubicin (Adriamycin®).

      Until more is known, people receiving i.v. tobramycin should ask their doctor about monitoring calcium, magnesium, and potassium levels and the possibility of mineral replacement.

    • Torsemide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium. Loop diuretics may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,247 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.248 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.249

      People taking loop diuretics should be monitored by their doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.250 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake is another way of supplementing potassium. Magnesium supplementation is typically 300-400 mg per day.

    • Trichlormethiazide

      Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,251 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.252 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.253

      People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.254 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.255 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

      Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300-600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.256 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.257

    • Uracil Mustard

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.258 , 259 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.260 , 261 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.262 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Vinblastine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause kidney damage, resulting in depletion of calcium and phosphate.263

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.264 , 265 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.266 , 267 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.268 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    • Vincristine

      The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.269 , 270 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.271 , 272 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.273 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

      Many chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhea , lack of appetite, vomiting, and damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent anti-nausea prescription medications are often effective. Nonetheless, nutritional deficiencies still occur.274 People undergoing chemotherapy should talk to their doctor about whether supplementing with a multivitamin-mineral will protect them against deficiencies.

    Reduce Side Effects

    • Ipecac

      In order to lose weight, some individuals who are overly zealous, as well as those with eating disorders, occasionally induce vomiting with ipecac. However, chronic abuse of ipecac can result in low blood levels of potassium,160 which might result in an irregular heart rhythm. Though avoidance of this behavior is the best form of prevention, individuals who abuse ipecac should supplement with potassium or high-potassium foods to prevent potassium deficiency.

    • Quinidine

      People taking potassium-depleting diuretics may develop low potassium and magnesium blood levels. Prolonged diarrhea and vomiting might also result in low blood potassium levels. People with low potassium or magnesium blood levels who take quinidine might develop serious drug side effects.218 Therefore, people taking quinidine should have their blood potassium and magnesium levels checked regularly and might need to supplement with both minerals, especially when taking potassium-depleting diuretics.

    • Thioridazine

      Some people taking thioridazine experience changes in the electrical activity of the heart, which sometimes improve with potassium supplementation.239 More research is needed to determine if people taking thioridazine might prevent heart problems by supplementing with potassium.

    Support Medicine

    • none

    Reduces Effectiveness

    • none

    Potential Negative Interaction

    • Acebutolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,275 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.276 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (for example, bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Amiloride

      As a potassium-sparing drug, amiloride reduces urinary loss of potassium.277 This can cause potassium levels to build up in the body. People taking this drug should avoid use of potassium chloride-containing products, such as Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others. Even eating several pieces of fruit per day can sometimes cause problems for people taking potassium-sparing diuretics, due to the high potassium content of fruit.

      However, one medication (Moduretic) contains the combination of the potassium-sparing drug amiloride and the potassium-depleting drug hydrochlorothiazide. With the use of Moduretic, potassium excess and potassium depletion are both possible. People taking this combination drug should have their potassium levels monitored by a doctor to determine whether their potassium intake should be increased, reduced, or kept the same.

    • Amlodipine-Benazepril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.278 , 279 , 280 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,281 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),282 , 283 , 284 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.285 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Amlodipine-Olmesartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.286 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Atenolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,287 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.288 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (for example, bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Azilsartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as azilsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.289 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking azilsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Azilsartan Med-Chlorthalidone
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as azilsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.290 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking azilsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Benazepril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.291 , 292 , 293 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,294 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),295 , 296 , 297 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.298 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Betaxolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,299 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.300 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Bisoprolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,301 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.302 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Candesartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as candesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.303Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking candesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Candesartan-Hydrochlorothiazid
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as candesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.304Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking candesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Captopril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.305 , 306 , 307 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,308 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),309 , 310 , 311 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.312 Therefore, individuals should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Carteolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,313 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.314 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Cyclosporine

      Cyclosporine can cause excess retention of potassium, potentially leading to dangerous levels of the mineral in the blood (hyperkalemia).315 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit) should be avoided by people taking cyclosporine, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.

    • Enalapril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.316 , 317 , 318 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,319 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),320 , 321 , 322 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.323 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Eprosartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as eprosartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.324 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking eprosartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Eprosartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as eprosartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.325 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking eprosartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Esmolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,326 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.327 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Fosinopril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.328 , 329 , 330 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,331 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),332 , 333 , 334 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.335 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Indomethacin

      Indomethacin may cause elevated blood potassium levels in people with normal and abnormal kidney function.336 , 337 , 338 , 339 Until more is known, people taking indomethacin should not supplement potassium without medical supervision.

    • Irbesartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as irbesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.340 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking irbesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as irbesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.341 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking irbesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Ketorolac

      A 50-year-old male developed high blood levels of potassium following eight days of ketorolac treatment.342 Additional research is needed to determine whether taking ketorolac together with supplemental potassium might enhance this side effect. individuals taking oral ketorolac should probably avoid potassium supplements and salt substitutes until more information is available.

    • Labetalol

      Three kidney transplant patients developed hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels), a potentially dangerous condition, following intravenous administration of labetalol.343 Additional research is needed to determine whether taking oral labetalol together with potassium supplements might also lead to elevated blood levels of potassium. However, some other beta-blockers (called "nonselective" beta-blockers) are known to decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,344 leading to hyperkalemia.345 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Levobunolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,346 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.347 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Lisinopril

      A potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.348 , 349 , 350 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,351 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),352 , 353 , 354 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.355 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Losartan
      Losartan has caused significant increases in blood potassium levels. Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking losartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.356
    • Moexipril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.357 , 358 , 359 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,360 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),361 , 362 , 363 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (such as bananas and other fruit) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.364 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Nadolol

      People taking nadolol may experience significant increases in blood levels of potassium,365 though it is unknown whether supplementation with potassium might enhance this effect. People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of high-potassium foods, such as fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Nebivolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,366 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.367 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Olmesartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.368 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Olmesartan-Amlodipine-Hctz
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.369 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Olmesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.370 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Penbutolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,371 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.372 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Perindopril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.373 , 374 , 375 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,376 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),377 , 378 , 379 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (such as bananas and other fruit) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.380 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Pindolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,381 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.382 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Piroxicam

      An 85-year-old man developed higher than normal blood levels of potassium following several months of treatment with piroxicam.383 Until more is known, people taking piroxicam for long periods should have their blood checked regularly for high potassium levels and may need to avoid high potassium intake with the guidance of a health practitioner.

    • Propranolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,384 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.385 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Quinapril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.386 , 387 , 388 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,389 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),390 , 391 , 392 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.393 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Ramipril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.394 , 395 , 396 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,397 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),398 , 399 , 400 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.401 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Spironolactone

      As a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone reduces urinary loss of potassium, which can lead to elevated potassium levels.402 People taking spironolactone should avoid potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others), and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit). Doctors should monitor potassium blood levels in patients taking spironolactone to prevent problems associated with elevated potassium levels.

      However, one medication (Aldactazide) contains the combination of the potassium-sparing drug spironolactone and the potassium-depleting drug hydrochlorothiazide. With the use of Aldactazide, potassium excess and potassium depletion are both possible. People taking this combination drug should have their potassium levels monitored by a doctor to determine whether their potassium intake should be increased, reduced, or kept the same.

    • Telmisartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as telmisartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.403 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking telmisartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Telmisartan-Amlodipine
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as telmisartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.404 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking telmisartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Telmisartan-Hydrochlorothiazid
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as telmisartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.405 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking telmisartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Timolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,406 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.407 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Trandolapril

      An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.408 , 409 , 410 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,411 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),412 , 413 , 414 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (such as bananas and other fruit) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.415 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    • Triamterene

      As a potassium-sparing drug, triamterene reduces urinary loss of potassium, which can lead to elevated potassium levels.416 People taking triamterene should avoid potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others) and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit). Doctors should monitor potassium blood levels in patients taking triamterene to prevent problems associated with elevated potassium levels.

      However, some medications (for example, Dyazide, Maxzide) contain the combination of the potassium-sparing drug triamterene and the potassium-depleting drug hydrochlorothiazide. With the use of these combination medications, potassium excess and potassium depletion are both possible. People taking these drugs should have their potassium levels monitored by a doctor to determine whether their potassium intake should be increased, reduced, or kept the same.

    • Trimethoprim

      The combination drug trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) has been reported to elevate blood potassium and other constituents of blood (creatine and BUN).417 , 418 In particular, people with impaired kidney function should be closely monitored by their prescribing doctor for these changes. People taking trimethoprim or TMP/SMX should talk with the prescribing doctor before taking any potassium supplements or potassium-containing products, such as No Salt, Salt Substitute, Lite Salt, and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit).

    • Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole

      TMP/SMX has been reported to increase blood potassium to levels above the normal range in some patients, particularly those with impaired kidney function.419 People who have been prescribed TMP/SMX should ask their doctor whether they should avoid potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and high-potassium foods (primarily fruit).

    • Valsartan
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as valsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.420 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking valsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
    • Valsartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
      Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as valsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.421 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking valsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.

    Explanation Required

    • Celecoxib

      Controlled studies indicate that individuals on low-salt diets who take celecoxib retain sodium and potassium, which might result in higher than normal blood levels of these minerals.422 More research is needed to determine whether potassium supplements might produce unwanted side effects in people taking celecoxib. Until more information is available, people taking celecoxib should have their sodium and potassium blood levels monitored by their healthcare practitioner.

    • Digoxin

      Medical doctors prescribing digoxin also check for potassium depletion and prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Potassium transport from the blood into cells is impaired by digoxin.423 Although digoxin therapy does not usually lead to excess potassium in the blood (hyperkalemia), an overdose of digoxin could cause a potentially fatal hyperkalemia.424 People taking digoxin should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor. On the other hand, many people taking digoxin are also taking a diuretic; in these individuals, increased intake of potassium may be needed. These issues should be discussed with a doctor.

    • Epinephrine

      Intravenous administration of epinephrine to human volunteers reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin C .425 Epinephrine and other "stress hormones" may reduce intracellular concentrations of potassium and magnesium .426 Although there are no clinical studies in humans, it seems reasonable that individuals using epinephrine should consume a diet high in vitamin C, potassium, and magnesium, or should consider supplementing with these nutrients.

    • Etodolac

      NSAIDs have caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.427 People taking NSAIDs, including etodolac, should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

    • Haloperidol

      Haloperidol may cause hyperkalemia (high blood levels of potassium) or hypokalemia (low blood levels of potassium).428 The incidence and severity of these changes remains unclear. Serum potassium can be measured by any doctor.

    • Heparin

      Heparin therapy may cause hyperkalemia (abnormally high potassium levels).429 , 430 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others), and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit) should be avoided by persons on heparin therapy, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.

    • Ibuprofen

      Ibuprofen has caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.431 People taking ibuprofen should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

    • Magnesium Hydroxide

      Individuals taking potassium-depleting diuretics and those who are otherwise at risk of developing potassium deficiency (such as people with chronic diarrhea or vomiting) may experience a fall in serum potassium levels if they take magnesium without taking additional potassium.432 This could lead to muscle cramps or, in individuals taking digoxin or digitalis, more serious problems such as cardiac arrhythmias . Individuals who have a history of potassium deficiency and those who are at risk of developing potassium deficiency, as well as people taking digoxin or digitalis, should consult a physician before taking magnesium-containing products.

    • Metoprolol

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,433 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.434 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    • Nabumetone

      NSAIDs have caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.435 People taking NSAIDs, including nabumetone, should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

    • Naproxen

      Naproxen has caused kidney problems and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.436 , 437 People taking naproxen should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

    • Oxaprozin

      NSAIDs have caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.438 People taking NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

    • Senna

      Overuse or misuse of laxatives, including senna, can cause water, sodium, and potassium depletion.439 To avoid depletion problems, people should limit laxative use, including senna, to one week or less.440

    • Sotalol

      People with prolonged diarrhea and vomiting, as well as those taking potassium-depleting diuretics, might develop low blood potassium levels. Individuals with low blood potassium levels who take sotalol have an increased risk of developing a serious heart arrhythmia and fainting. Therefore, people taking sotalol should have their blood potassium levels checked regularly and may need to supplement with potassium, especially when taking potassium-depleting diuretics.

      Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called "nonselective" beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,441 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.442 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers' package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

    Side Effects

    Side Effects

    High potassium intake (several hundred milligrams at one time in tablet form) can produce stomach irritation. People using potassium-sparing drugs should avoid using potassium chloride-containing products, such as Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others and should not take potassium supplements, except under the supervision of a doctor. Even eating several pieces of fruit each day can sometimes cause problems for people taking potassium-sparing drugs, due to the high potassium content of fruit.

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