Acute kidney injury, also called acute renal failure, is the sudden loss of kidney function. When
acute kidney injury occurs, the kidneys are unable to remove waste products and
excess fluids, which then build up in the body and upset the body's normal
The most common causes of acute kidney injury are dehydration,
blood loss from major surgery or injury, or medicines such as nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, or the dyes (contrast agents)
used in X-ray tests.
Symptoms depend on the cause of the problem and can include:
Little or no urine
Dizziness upon standing.
of the legs and feet.
Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
Pain in the flank, which is felt just below the rib cage and above the waist on one or both sides of the back.
The treatment of acute kidney injury includes correcting the
cause and supporting the kidneys with dialysis until proper
functioning is restored. Most people who develop acute kidney injury are
already in the hospital.
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Tushar J. Vachharajani, MD, FASN, FACP - Nephrology