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    Gastritis (Holistic)

    Gastritis (Holistic)

    About This Condition

    A dull ache in your belly may be a sign of gastritis, an inflammation of the stomach lining. First uncover the cause. Then control the discomfort. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
    • Get to know gamma oryzanol

      Take 300 mg a day of this supplement to improve gastritis symptoms

    • Steer clear of irritants

      Help with the healing process and prevent recurrences by reducing your intake of salt, caffeine, decaf coffee, alcohol, and spicy foods

    • Say no to smoking

      Reduce your risks by kicking the habit

    • Get a checkup

      Visit your doctor to find out if your gastritis is due to a treatable medical condition and whether you should avoid taking certain irritating medications

    About

    About This Condition

    Gastritis is a broad term for inflammation of the stomach lining, also called the gastric mucosa.

    This condition can be caused by many factors and, in some cases, may lead to an ulcer . For that reason, many of the same nutrients, herbs, and lifestyle changes for a peptic ulcer might also help someone with gastritis.

    Bacterial infection, most notably with Helicobacter pylori, 1 is a major cause of gastritis. H. pylori is the same bacterium responsible for most cases of peptic ulcer. When considering treatments for gastritis, many researchers now look for substances that eradicate H. pylori, including bismuth 2 and antibiotics.3

    Other causes of gastritis include intake of caustic poisons, alcohol, and some medications (such as aspirin or adrenal corticosteroids), as well as physical stress from the flu , major surgery, severe burns, or injuries. For some people, a drug allergy or food poisoning can cause gastritis. Atrophic gastritis is a form of gastritis found particularly in the elderly, where stomach cells are destroyed, potentially leading to pernicious anemia .

    Symptoms

    Acute gastritis is typically characterized by nonspecific abdominal pain. Since gastritis often occurs in severely ill, hospitalized people, its symptoms may be eclipsed by other, more severe symptoms. Gastritis that is caused by H. pylori eventually leads to peptic ulcers , which are characterized by a dull ache in the upper abdomen that usually occurs two to three hours after a meal; the ache is typically relieved by eating.

    Healthy Lifestyle Tips

    Gastritis is common among alcoholics .4 Both heavy smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are known causes of acute gastritis.5 While heavy alcohol intake is clearly damaging to the stomach lining, preliminary evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption (generally defined as two drinks per day in women or three drinks per day in men) may actually protect against the development of gastritis by facilitating the elimination of H. pylori.6 When alcohol is consumed in greater than moderate amounts, it causes a wide variety of health problems.

    Many medications, such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS, such as ibuprofen ), can induce or aggravate stomach irritation.7 People with a history of gastritis should never take aspirin or related drugs without first discussing the matter with their doctor.

    Eating Right

    The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.

    Recommendation Why
    Try a low-salt diet
    Salt can irritate the stomach lining, so eat foods low in salt to avoid irritation.

    Salt can irritate the stomach lining. Some research suggests that eating salty foods increases the risk of developing a H. pylori infection.8 Researchers have speculated that increased salt intake may also increase the risk of other forms of gastritis.9

    Try some cayenne or chili pepper
    Doctors commonly recommend avoiding spicy foods, but cayenne or chili pepper may be beneficial: the active ingredient in these foods, capsaicin, has been shown to protect against gastritis.

    Doctors commonly suggest that people with gastritis avoid spicy foods. However, one study found that capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in cayenne or chili pepper, protected against aspirin-induced gastritis in healthy persons. When people ate chili pepper followed by 600 mg of aspirin , stomach injury was considerably less than in people who took only aspirin.10 The researchers of this study speculate that chili pepper helps by increasing blood flow to the stomach. Capsaicin has also been shown to protect against alcohol-induced gastritis in rats,11 though this has yet to be tested in humans.

    Avoid caffeine
    Caffeine found in coffee, black tea, green tea, some soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications increases stomach acid. Avoiding these substances should help heal gastritis.

    Caffeine found in coffee, black tea, green tea , some soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications increases stomach acid,12 as does decaffeinated coffee.13 Avoiding these substances should therefore aid in the healing of gastritis.

    Uncover food allergies
    Work with a knowledgeable professional to see whether food allergies are triggering your gastritis.

    Some researchers have suggested that food allergies or intolerance may cause gastritis.14 In one double-blind trial, people with proven food sensitivities showed clear evidence of irritation of the stomach lining (including swelling, bleeding, and erosions) when given foods to which they were known to react.15 However, most of these people did not have abnormal results from standard blood tests for allergies. People suspecting food sensitivities or allergies should consider discussing an allergy elimination program with a healthcare professional.

    Supplements

    What Are Star Ratings?

    Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

    2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

    1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

    Supplement Why
    2 Stars
    Gamma Oryzanol
    300 mg daily
    Supplementing with gamma oryzanol may improve improve gastritis symptoms.

    The results of several clinical trials suggest that gamma oryzanol supplementation can help people with gastritis and other gastrointestinal complaints. In one study, people with chronic gastritis were given 300 mg of gamma oryzanol per day.16 After two weeks, 23% of people taking gamma oryzanol reported that it was "extremely effective" and 55% rated it as "moderately effective." Another study produced similar results: People with various types of gastritis received 300 mg of gamma oryzanol per day. After two weeks, more than 62% of those with superficial gastritis, more than 87% of those with atrophic gastritis, and all people with erosive gastritis experienced improvement. These results were confirmed in a large study involving approximately 2,000 people with various gastrointestinal complaints, including several forms of gastritis.17 Some of these people required as much as 600 mg per day for symptoms to improve. People with gastritis wishing to take gamma oryzanol for more than six months, or in amounts exceeding 300 mg per day, should first consult with a physician.

    2 Stars
    N-Acetyl Cysteine
    1 gram daily
    In one study, people with atrophic gastritis given NAC saw increased healing.

    Various amino acids have shown promise for people with gastritis. In a double-blind trial, taking 200 mg of cysteine four times daily provided significant benefit for people with bleeding gastritis caused by NSAIDs (such as aspirin ).18 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that stimulates healing of gastritis. In a preliminary trial, 1-4 grams per day of NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) given to people with atrophic gastritis for four weeks appeared to increase healing.19 Glutamine , another amino acid is a main energy source for cells in the stomach and supplementation may increase blood flow to this region.20 Patients in surgical intensive care units often develop gastrointestinal problems related to a glutamine deficiency.21 When burn victims were supplemented with glutamine, they did not develop stress ulcers, even after several operations.22 Nevertheless, it remains unclear to what extent glutamine supplementation might prevent or help existing gastritis. Preliminary evidence suggests the amino acid arginine may both protect the stomach and increase its blood flow,23 but research has yet to investigate the effects of arginine supplementation in people with gastritis.

    2 Stars
    Vitamin C
    5 grams daily
    Vitamin C may reduce free radical damage in the stomach lining in the case of gastritis caused by the bacteriaH. pylori.

    When H. pylori causes gastritis, free radical levels rise in the stomach lining.24 These unstable molecules contribute to inflammation and damage to the stomach lining. Vitamin C , an antioxidant that helps quench free radical molecules, is low in the stomach juice of people with chronic gastritis. This deficiency may be the link between chronic gastritis and the increased risk of stomach cancer. When people with gastritis took 500 mg of vitamin C twice a day, vitamin C levels in their gastric juice rose, though not to normal levels.25 In another trial, vitamin C supplementation (5 grams per day divided into several doses for four weeks) appeared to eliminate H. pylori infection.26 While no direct evidence proves that taking vitamin C reduces gastritis symptoms, scientists widely believe that any agent capable of knocking out H. pylori should help people with this condition.

    1 Star
    Arginine
    Refer to label instructions
    The amino acid arginine may both protect the stomach and increase its blood flow.

    Various amino acids have shown promise for people with gastritis. In a double-blind trial, taking 200 mg of cysteine four times daily provided significant benefit for people with bleeding gastritis caused by NSAIDs (such as aspirin ).27 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that stimulates healing of gastritis. In a preliminary trial, 1-4 grams per day of NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) given to people with atrophic gastritis for four weeks appeared to increase healing.28 Glutamine , another amino acid is a main energy source for cells in the stomach and supplementation may increase blood flow to this region.29 Patients in surgical intensive care units often develop gastrointestinal problems related to a glutamine deficiency.30 When burn victims were supplemented with glutamine, they did not develop stress ulcers, even after several operations.31 Nevertheless, it remains unclear to what extent glutamine supplementation might prevent or help existing gastritis. Preliminary evidence suggests the amino acid arginine may both protect the stomach and increase its blood flow,32 but research has yet to investigate the effects of arginine supplementation in people with gastritis.

    1 Star
    Beta-Carotene
    Refer to label instructions
    The antioxidant beta-carotene may reduce free radical damage in the stomach, and supplementing with it has led to improvements in people with gastritis in some studies.

    Caution: Synthetic beta-carotene has been linked to increased risk of lung cancer in smokers. Until more is known, smokers should avoid all beta-carotene supplements.

    The antioxidant beta-carotene may reduce free radical damage in the stomach,33 and eating foods high in beta-carotene has been linked to a decreased risk of developing chronic atrophic gastritis.34 Moreover, people with active gastritis have been reported to have low levels of beta-carotene in their stomachs.35 In a preliminary trial, giving 30,000 IU of beta-carotene per day to people with ulcers or gastritis led to the disappearance of gastric erosions.36 In another study, combining vitamin C and beta-carotene also led to improvement in most people with chronic atrophic gastritis.37

    1 Star
    Bladderwrack
    Refer to label instructions
    Bladderwrack is high in mucilage, which may be advantageous for people with gastritis because its slippery nature soothes irritated mucus membranes of the digestive tract.

    Demulcent herbs, such as marshmallow, slippery elm, and bladderwrack, are high in mucilage. Mucilage might be advantageous for people with gastritis because its slippery nature soothes irritated mucus membranes of the digestive tract. Marshmallow is used for mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa.38

    1 Star
    Chamomile
    Refer to label instructions
    Chamomile may soothe injured and inflamed mucous membranes. Active ingredients in chamomile appears to inhibit H. pylori and reduce free radical activity.

    Chamomile , high in the flavonoid apigenin, may soothe injured and inflamed mucous membranes. In addition, a test tube study has shown that apigenin inhibits H. pylori, 39 and chamazulene, another active ingredient in chamomile, reduces free radical activity,40 both potential advantages for people with gastritis. Human clinical trials are needed to confirm chamomile's effectiveness for treating gastritis.

    1 Star
    Glutamine
    Refer to label instructions
    The amino acid glutamine is a main energy source for cells in the stomach and may increase blood flow to this region.

    Various amino acids have shown promise for people with gastritis. In a double-blind trial, taking 200 mg of cysteine four times daily provided significant benefit for people with bleeding gastritis caused by NSAIDs (such as aspirin ).41 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that stimulates healing of gastritis. In a preliminary trial, 1-4 grams per day of NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) given to people with atrophic gastritis for four weeks appeared to increase healing.42 Glutamine , another amino acid is a main energy source for cells in the stomach and supplementation may increase blood flow to this region.43 Patients in surgical intensive care units often develop gastrointestinal problems related to a glutamine deficiency.44 When burn victims were supplemented with glutamine, they did not develop stress ulcers, even after several operations.45 Nevertheless, it remains unclear to what extent glutamine supplementation might prevent or help existing gastritis. Preliminary evidence suggests the amino acid arginine may both protect the stomach and increase its blood flow,46 but research has yet to investigate the effects of arginine supplementation in people with gastritis.

    1 Star
    Goldenseal
    Refer to label instructions
    Goldenseal is considered an herbal antibiotic and has been traditionally used for infections of the mucous membranes. One of its active ingredients appears to slow H. pylori growth.

    Goldenseal is regarded as an herbal antibiotic and has been traditionally used for infections of the mucous membranes. While no specific research points to goldenseal as a treatment for gastritis, there is some evidence from test tube studies that berberine, an active ingredient in goldenseal, slows growth of H. pylori. 47 Modern herbal practitioners now prefer alternatives to goldenseal, since the plant is threatened with extinction due to overharvesting.

    1 Star
    Licorice
    Refer to label instructions
    Licorice root has been traditionally used to soothe stomach inflammation and injury. Its flavonoid constituents have been found to stall the growth of H. pylori in test tube studies.

    Many of the same herbs that are helpful for peptic ulcers may also aid people with gastritis. Licorice root, for example, has been traditionally used to soothe inflammation and injury in the stomach. Its flavonoid constituents have been found to stall the growth of H. pylori in test tube studies.48 However, there have been no clinical trials using licorice to treat gastritis. To avoid potential side effects, such as increasing blood pressure and water weight gain, many physicians recommend deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL). This form of licorice retains its healing qualities by removing the glycyrrhizin that causes problems in some people.

    1 Star
    Marshmallow
    Refer to label instructions
    Marshmallow is high in mucilage, which may be advantageous for people with gastritis because its slippery nature soothes irritated mucus membranes of the digestive tract.

    Demulcent herbs, such as marshmallow , slippery elm , and bladderwrack , are high in mucilage. Mucilage might be advantageous for people with gastritis because its slippery nature soothes irritated mucus membranes of the digestive tract. Marshmallow is used for mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa.49

    1 Star
    Slippery Elm
    Refer to label instructions
    Slippery elm is high in mucilage, which may be advantageous for people with gastritis because its slippery nature soothes irritated mucus membranes of the digestive tract.

    Demulcent herbs, such as marshmallow , slippery elm , and bladderwrack , are high in mucilage. Mucilage might be advantageous for people with gastritis because its slippery nature soothes irritated mucus membranes of the digestive tract. Marshmallow is used for mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa.50

    1 Star
    Vitamin A
    Refer to label instructions
    Vitamin A appears to reduce ulcer size and pain in people with ulcers and may help treat gastritis.

    Zinc and vitamin A , nutrients that aid in healing, are commonly used to help people with peptic ulcers. For example, the ulcers of people taking 50 mg of zinc three times per day healed three times faster than those of people who took placebo.51 Since some types of gastritis can progress to peptic ulcer, it is possible that taking it may be useful. Nevertheless, the research does not yet show that zinc specifically helps people with gastritis. The amount of zinc used in this study is very high compared with what most people take (15-40 mg per day). Even at these lower levels, it is necessary to take 1-3 mg of copper per day to avoid a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

    1 Star
    Wood Betony
    Refer to label instructions
    Wood betony has been used in European traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of heartburn and gastritis.

    Wood betony (Stachys betonica) has been used in European traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of heartburn and gastritis.

    1 Star
    Zinc
    Refer to label instructions
    Zinc is helpful in healing peptic ulcers, which can occur in some types of gastritis.

    Zinc and vitamin A , nutrients that aid in healing, are commonly used to help people with peptic ulcers. For example, the ulcers of people taking 50 mg of zinc three times per day healed three times faster than those of people who took placebo.52 Since some types of gastritis can progress to peptic ulcer, it is possible that taking it may be useful. Nevertheless, the research does not yet show that zinc specifically helps people with gastritis. The amount of zinc used in this study is very high compared with what most people take (15-40 mg per day). Even at these lower levels, it is necessary to take 1-3 mg of copper per day to avoid a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

    References

    1. Kelly DJ. The physiology and metabolism of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Adv Micro Physiol 1998;40:137-89 [review].

    2. Kumar M, Yachha SK, Aggarwal R, et al. Healing of chronic antral gastritis: effect of sucralfate and colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Indian J Gastroenterol 1996;15(3):90-3.

    3. Lieber CS. Gastric ethanol metabolism and gastritis: interactions with other drugs, Helicobacter pylori, and antibiotic therapy (1957-1997)-a review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997;21:1360-6 [review].

    4. Altman C, Ladouch A, Briantais MJ, et al. Antral gastritis in chronic alcoholism. Role of cirrhosis and Helicobacter pylori. Presse Med 1995;24(15):708-10 [in French].

    5. Robbins SL, Cotran RS, Kumar V. Pathologic Basis of Disease 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co, 1984, 809-14.

    6. Brenner H, Berg G, Lappus N, et al. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection: results from the German National Health and Nutrition Survey. Epidemiology 1999;10:214-8.

    7. Scheiman JM. NSAIDs, gastrointestinal injury, and cytoprotection. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 1996;25(2):279-98 [review].

    8. Tsugane S, Tei Y, Takahashi T, et al. Salty food intake and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection. Jpn J Cancer Res 1994;85(5):474-8.

    9. Jooseens JV, Geboers J. Nutrition and gastric cancer. Nutr Cancer 1981;2:250-61.

    10. Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, et al. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40(3):580-3.

    11. Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, et al. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40(3):580-3.

    12. Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. West J Med 1992;157(5):544-53 [review].

    13. Elta GH, Behler EM, Colturi TJ. Comparison of coffee intake and coffee-induced symptoms in patients with duodenal ulcer, nonulcer dyspepsia, and normal controls. Am J Gastroenterol 1990;85(10):1339-42.

    14. Aiuti F, Paganelli R. Food allergy and gastrointestinal diseases. Ann Allergy 1983;51(two Pt 2):275-80 [review].

    15. Reimann H-J, Lewin J. Gastric mucosal reactions in patients with food allergy. Am J Gastroenterol 1988;83:1212-9.

    16. Maruyama K, Kashiwazaki K, Toyama K, Tsuchiya M. Usefulness of Hi-Z fine granule (gamma-Oryzanol) for the treatment of autonomic instability in gastrointestinal system. Shinyaku To Rinsho 1976;25:124 [in Japanese].

    17. Takemoto T, Miyoshi H, Nagashima H. Clinical trial of Hi-Z fine granules (gamma-oryzanol) on gastrointestinal symptoms at 375 hospitals (Japan). Shinyaku To Rinsho 1977;26 [in Japanese].

    18. Salim AS. Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Can J Surg 1993;36(1):53-8.

    19. Farinati F, Cardin R, Della Libera G, et al. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia: a phase III pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:724-33.

    20. Houdijk AP, Van Leeuwen PA, Boermeester MA, et al. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases splanchnic blood flow in the rat. Am J Physiol 1994;267(6 Pt 1):G1035-40.

    21. Wilmore DW, Smith RJ, O'Dwyer ST, et al. The gut: a central organ after surgical stress. Surgery 1988;104:917-23.

    22. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.

    23. Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Sliwowski Z, et al. Role of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide-synthase, in gastroprotection and ulcer healing. J Gastroenterol 1997;32(4):442-52.

    24. Drake IM, Mapstone NP, Schorah CJ, et al. Reactive oxygen species activity and lipid peroxidation in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis: relation to gastric mucosal ascorbic acid concentrations and effect of H pylori eradication. Gut 1998;42(6):768-71.

    25. Waring AJ, Drake IM, Schorah CJ, et al. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastrointestinal mucosa: effects of gastritis and oral supplementation. Gut 1996;38(2):171-6.

    26. Jarosz M, Dzieniszewski J, Dabrowska-Ufniarz E, et al. Effects of high dose vitamin C treatment on Helicobacter pylori infection and total vitamin C concentration in gastric juice. Eur J Cancer Prev 1998;7:449-54.

    27. Salim AS. Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Can J Surg 1993;36(1):53-8.

    28. Farinati F, Cardin R, Della Libera G, et al. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia: a phase III pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:724-33.

    29. Houdijk AP, Van Leeuwen PA, Boermeester MA, et al. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases splanchnic blood flow in the rat. Am J Physiol 1994;267(6 Pt 1):G1035-40.

    30. Wilmore DW, Smith RJ, O'Dwyer ST, et al. The gut: a central organ after surgical stress. Surgery 1988;104:917-23.

    31. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.

    32. Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Sliwowski Z, et al. Role of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide-synthase, in gastroprotection and ulcer healing. J Gastroenterol 1997;32(4):442-52.

    33. Spirichev VB, Levachev MM, Rymarenko TV, et al. The effect of administration of beta-carotene in an oil solution on its blood serum level and antioxidant status of patients with duodenal ulcer and erosive gastritis. Vopr Med Khim 1992;38(6):44-7 [in Russian].

    34. Palli D, Decarli A, Cipriani F, et al. Plasma pepsinogens, nutrients, and diet in areas of Italy at varying gastric cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1991;1(1):45-50.

    35. Zhang ZW, Patchett SE, Perrett D, et al. Gastric mucosal and luminal beta-carotene concentrations in patients with chronic H pylori infection. Gut 1996;38(suppl 1):A5 [abstract W11].

    36. Spirichev VB, Levachev MM, Rymarenko TV, et al. The effect of administration of beta-carotene in an oil solution on its blood serum level and antioxidant status of patients with duodenal ulcer and erosive gastritis. Vopr Med Khim 1992;38:44-7 [in Russian].

    37. Tsubono Y, Okubo S, Hayashi M, et al. A randomized controlled trial for chemoprevention of gastric cancer in high-risk Japanese population; study design, feasibility and protocol modification. Jpn J Cancer Res 1997;88:344-9.

    38. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 167.

    39. Beil W, Birkholz W, Sewing KF. Effects of flavonoids on parietal cell acid secretion, gastric mucosal prostaglandin production and Helicobacter pylori growth. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45:697-700.

    40. Rekka EA, Kourounakis AP, Kourounakis PN. Investigation of the effect of chamazulene on lipid peroxidation and free radical processes. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1996;92(3):361-4.

    41. Salim AS. Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Can J Surg 1993;36(1):53-8.

    42. Farinati F, Cardin R, Della Libera G, et al. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia: a phase III pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:724-33.

    43. Houdijk AP, Van Leeuwen PA, Boermeester MA, et al. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases splanchnic blood flow in the rat. Am J Physiol 1994;267(6 Pt 1):G1035-40.

    44. Wilmore DW, Smith RJ, O'Dwyer ST, et al. The gut: a central organ after surgical stress. Surgery 1988;104:917-23.

    45. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.

    46. Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Sliwowski Z, et al. Role of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide-synthase, in gastroprotection and ulcer healing. J Gastroenterol 1997;32(4):442-52.

    47. Bae EA, Han MJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of herbal medicines. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21(9):990-2.

    48. Beil W, Birkholz W, Sewing KF. Effects of flavonoids on parietal cell acid secretion, gastric mucosal prostaglandin production and Helicobacter pylori growth. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45:697-700.

    49. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 167.

    50. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 167.

    51. Frommer DJ. The healing of gastric ulcers by zinc sulphate. Med J Aust 1975;22(21):793-6.

    52. Frommer DJ. The healing of gastric ulcers by zinc sulphate. Med J Aust 1975;22(21):793-6.

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