Insulin Resistance Syndrome (Holistic)Skip to the navigation
About This Condition
Improve the action of insulin by supplementing with 200 to 1,000 mcg of this mineral
Fight back with fiber
Improve blood cholesterol and blood sugar by taking 8 to13 grams a day of a glucomannan fiber supplement; dive into two or three doses and take with meals
Control your carbs
Prevent excessive insulin production by saying no to foods with a high glycemic index
Choose a heart-healthy diet
Reduce your risk by eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and fish; at the same time avoid fats from meat, dairy, and processed foods high in hydrogenated oils
About This Condition
The insulin resistance syndrome (IRS; also called metabolic syndrome) is a group of health risk factors that increase the likelihood of heart disease ,1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and perhaps other disorders, such as diabetes and some cancers.5 , 6 The risk factors that make up IRS include insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced ability of the hormone insulin to control the processing of glucose by the body. Other major risk factors often associated with IRS include high blood sugar and high blood triglycerides , low HDL ("good") cholesterol , high blood pressure , and excessive body fat in the abdominal region. People with IRS do not always have every one of these risk factors, but they usually have many of them. A qualified doctor should make the diagnosis of IRS after a thorough examination and blood tests.
Most people with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance, but many more people who are not diabetic also have insulin resistance.7 , 8 , 9 Since insulin resistance itself often does not cause symptoms, these people may not be aware of their problem. Some authorities believe insulin resistance is partially inherited and partially due to lifestyle factors.
In addition to the recommendations discussed below, people with IRS may benefit from some of the recommendations given for type 2 diabetes . People with IRS should also benefit from health strategies that reduce the severity of the risk factors they possess, including obesity , high triglycerides, and high blood pressure.
Healthy Lifestyle Tips
Obesity , especially when fat accumulates in the abdominal region, increases the severity of insulin resistance,10 , 11 and has been associated with IRS.12 , 13 Loss of excess weight tends to improve insulin sensitivity (i.e., reduce insulin resistance),14 , 15 and this has been recently shown to be true for people with IRS as well.16 Weight loss also reduces many of the other health risk factors associated with IRS.17
Cigarette smoking, in most,18 , 19 though not all,20 studies, as well as exposure to secondhand smoke21 and use of nicotine replacement products,22 , 23 have been associated with insulin resistance. Smoking cessation has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in healthy people.24
Alcohol consumption in the light to moderate range (up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men25) is associated with better insulin sensitivity in healthy, nondiabetic people.26 , 27 , 28 , 29 Since alcohol consumption also reduces other risk factors for heart disease ,30 , 31 it does not appear that people with IRS would benefit from avoiding alcohol if they are currently light to moderate drinkers. However, alcohol is potentially addicting and can increase the risk of other diseases, so people with IRS who are not users of alcohol should consult a doctor before starting regular consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Either aerobic exercise or strength training improves insulin sensitivity in both healthy and insulin-resistant people in most studies, 32 , 33 though a recent controlled trial found that aerobic exercise alone did not affect insulin resistance in people with IRS.34 Studies comparing strength training to aerobic exercise in insulin-resistant people have reported greater benefits from strength training,35 , 36 but a combination of the two will probably be more effective than either one alone. Current recommendations for exercise includes about 30 minutes per day of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and muscle strengthening exercises (working all major muscle groups) at least two days per week.37 , 38 , 39 In addition, exercise has many benefits in reducing many of the risk factors associated with IRS.40
Some popular diet books claim that insulin resistance causes weight gain and prevents successful weight loss . However, one controlled study found no difference in the number of women experiencing successful short-term weight loss between women with or without insulin resistance.41
Insulin sensitivity decreases after certain stressful experiences, such as surgery,42 and decreased insulin sensitivity is associated with work-related mental and emotional stress,43 and other aspects of a stressful lifestyle.44 However, these associations have not been explored in people with IRS, nor has stress reduction been investigated as a treatment for IRS.
The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.
|Eat a healthy diet||
In one study, a diet low in fried foods and sausages and high in vegetables, fruits, fish, and complex carbohydrates such as whole grains was shown to protect against many aspects of IRS.
Some authorities recommend people with IRS avoid high-carbohydrate diets, and some recommend a diet lower in carbohydrate than current public health guidelines suggest. The rationale is that high carbohydrate intake stimulates increased insulin levels, which can lead to high triglycerides , low HDL , and other adverse changes in the levels of blood fats that contribute to heart disease risk.45 Other authorities disagree, however, because they believe a lower carbohydrate diet will result in higher calorie intake from fat, leading to more difficulties with overweight, insulin resistance, and heart disease risk.46 A recent preliminary study suggested that a healthy, balanced diet low in fried foods and sausages, and high in vegetables, fruits, fish, and complex carbohydrates, such as whole grain rice and pasta, was associated with protection from many aspects of IRS.47
|Get your protein||
Although more research is needed, diets high in protein may benefit people with IRS.
Very little research has investigated the effect of increasing dietary protein intake on insulin resistance in people with or without IRS. One controlled study found that people with some features of IRS lost more weight on a high protein diet than on a high-carbohydrate diet, although both diets produced similar improvements in a measurement of insulin sensitivity.48 Preliminary and controlled trials in people without IRS have also shown that substituting protein for carbohydrate in a low-fat diet can improve blood lipids ( cholesterol , triglycerides and HDL) towards reduced heart disease risk.49 , 50 More research is needed on the effects of high protein diets in people with IRS.
|Keep your eye on the GI||
Choosing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index (foods that don't cause a spike in blood sugar) and foods that are high in fiber may improve insulin sensitivity.
High-carbohydrate diets have also been shown to improve insulin sensitivity; the reason for this may partly be that weight loss often occurs on this type of diet,51 or that these diets are low in fats, such as saturated fat, that worsen insulin sensitivity.52 , 53 The type of carbohydrate consumed may influence the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet on insulin sensitivity. Animal research suggests that very high intake of fructose or sucrose worsens insulin sensitivity, but human studies have been inconsistent.54 , 55 "Glycemic index" refers to the blood sugar-raising effect of a food, and there is preliminary evidence from some,56 , 57 , 58 though not all,59 human research, that consumption of low glycemic index foods improves insulin sensitivity. Effects on glycemic index may be one reason dietary fiber is associated with better insulin sensitivity.60 As with dietary fat intake, it makes sense for people with IRS to choose carbohydrates according to their effects on heart disease risk. Therefore a diet low in refined carbohydrates and high in fiber appears most prudent.61
|Try a low-fat diet||
Avoiding fats from meat, dairy, and processed foods high in hydrogenated oils while allowing fish, olive oil and other monounsaturated fat sources makes sense for people with IRS.
The effect of dietary fat on insulin resistance seems to depend on the type of fat eaten. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that insulin resistance is worsened with increased use of saturated fat and improved with increased unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids from fish, while the role of other unsaturated fats is less clear.62 However, recent research has reported that diets high in monounsaturated fat improve insulin sensitivity in both healthy people and people with diabetes.63 A diet low in saturated fat, but which allows both fish and monounsaturated fat makes sense for people with IRS, because such a diet is associated with protection from heart disease . Recently, a low-fat diet allowing fish was shown to decrease insulin resistance in people with IRS.64
In two controlled studies,65 , 66 a combined program of a weight-loss diet lower in fat and higher in fish, along with exercise three times per week, improved several measures of insulin resistance, blood triglycerides and cholesterol, and blood pressure in a group of people with IRS.
Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
8 to 13 grams daily
Taking a glucomannan fiber supplement may improve blood cholesterol and blood sugar.
Glucomannan , a type of water-soluble dietary fiber , may reduce many risk factors in people with IRS. A double-blind trial found that 8-13 grams per day of glucomannan significantly improved several measures of blood cholesterol control and one measure of blood glucose control in people with IRS.67 Another double-blind study of healthy people found that 30 grams per day of guar gum, a fiber similar to glucomannan, improved insulin sensitivity and many other components of IRS, including blood pressure and blood glucose, cholesterol , and triglycerides , leading the authors to recommend guar gum for people with IRS.68 However, in another study, obese people taking 8-16 grams per day of guar gum for 6-12 weeks did not experience any change in insulin sensitivity.69
200 mcg daily
Supplementing with chromium may help improve the action of insulin.
Chromium has long been known to be helpful to people with insulin-related disorders.70 , 71 While no chromium research has been done specifically on people with IRS, known mechanisms of chromium's effects indicate that chromium plays a role in promoting insulin sensitivity.72 , 73 Preliminary evidence also suggests that insulin resistance may cause loss of chromium from the body, increasing the likelihood of chromium deficiency.74
30 grams daily
One study of healthy people found that guar gum, a fiber similar to glucomannan, improved insulin sensitivity and many other components of IRS.
Glucomannan , a type of water-soluble dietary fiber , may reduce many risk factors in people with IRS. A double-blind trial found that 8-13 grams per day of glucomannan significantly improved several measures of blood cholesterol control and one measure of blood glucose control in people with IRS.75 Another double-blind study of healthy people found that 30 grams per day of guar gum, a fiber similar to glucomannan, improved insulin sensitivity and many other components of IRS, including blood pressure and blood glucose, cholesterol , and triglycerides , leading the authors to recommend guar gum for people with IRS.76 However, in another study, obese people taking 8-16 grams per day of guar gum for 6-12 weeks did not experience any change in insulin sensitivity.77
Refer to label instructions
One study found that supplementing with calcium improved insulin sensitivity in people with hypertension.
Caution: Calcium supplements should be avoided by prostate cancer patients.
One double blind trial found that 1,500 mg per day of calcium improved insulin sensitivity in people with hypertension.78 No research on the effects of calcium in people with IRS has been done.
Refer to label instructions
Coenzyme Q10 may improve insulin sensitivity in people with components of IRS.
Refer to label instructions
Magnesium deficiency can reduce insulin sensitivity, and low magnesium levels have been associated with greater insulin resistance in people without diabetes, leading some doctors to believe that supplementing with magnesium may improve IRS.
Magnesium deficiency can reduce insulin sensitivity,80 and low dietary intake81 and low blood levels82 of magnesium have been associated with greater insulin resistance in nondiabetic people. However, no studies of magnesium supplementation in people with IRS have been done.
Refer to label instructions
Vitamin E has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in both healthy and hypertensive people and may have a similar effect on people with IRS.
Vitamin E , 800-1,350 IU per day, has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in both healthy83 and hypertensive84 people in double-blind studies. Research is needed to investigate this effect in people with IRS.
Refer to label instructions
Low zinc intake appears to be associated with several of the risk factors common in IRS, and a low blood level of zinc is associated with insulin resistance in overweight people.
Preliminary studies have reported that low zinc intake is associated with several of the risk factors common in IRS,85 and a low blood level of zinc is associated with insulin resistance in overweight people.86 However, people with IRS have not specifically been studied to determine whether they are zinc deficient or whether zinc supplements are helpful for them.
1. Lempiainen P, Mykkanen L, Pyorala K, et al. Insulin resistance syndrome predicts coronary heart disease events in elderly nondiabetic men. Circulation 1999;100:123-8.
2. Vanhala MJ, Pitkajarvi TK, Kumpusalo EA, Takala JK. Obesity type and clustering of insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:369-74.
3. Yip J, Facchini FS, Reaven GM. Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2773-6.
4. Pyorala M, Miettinen H, Halonen P, et al. Insulin resistance syndrome predicts the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:538-44.
5. Moore MA, Park CB, Tsuda H. Implications of the hyperinsulinaemia-diabetes-cancer link for preventive efforts. Eur J Cancer Prev 1998;7:89-107 [review].
6. Stoll BA. Western nutrition and the insulin resistance syndrome: a link to breast cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:83-7 [review].
7. Liese AD, Mayer-Davis EJ, Haffner SM. Development of the insulin resistance syndrome: an epidemiologic perspective. Epidemiol Rev 1998;20:157-72.
8. Trevisan M, Liu J, Bahsas FB, Menotti A. Syndrome X and mortality: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148:958-66.
9. Valdez R. Epidemiology. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S4-S6 [review].
10. Belfiore F, Iannello S. Insulin resistance in obesity: metabolic mechanisms and measurement methods. Mol Genet Metab 1998;65:121-8.
11. Frayn KN. Visceral fat and insulin resistance-causative or correlative? Br J Nutr 2000;83:S71-7 [review].
12. Haffner SM. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: the San Antonio Heart Study. Br J Nutr 2000;83:S67-70.
13. Okosun IS, Liao Y, Rotimi CN, et al. Abdominal adiposity and clustering of multiple metabolic syndrome in white, black and hispanic americans. Ann Epidemiol 2000;10:263-70.
14. Ross R, Dagnone D, Jones PJ, et al. Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:92-103.
15. Bessesen DH. Obesity as a factor. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S12-S15 [review].
16. Torjesen PA, Birkeland KI, Anderssen SA, et al. Lifestyle changes may reverse development of the insulin resistance syndrome. The Oslo Diet and Exercise Study: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 1997;20:26-31.
17. Grundy SM. Hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:25F-29F [review].
18. Tahtinen TM, Vanhala MJ, Oikarinen JA, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM. Effect of smoking on the prevalence of insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular risk factors among Finnish men in military service. J Cardiovasc Risk 1998;5:319-23.
19. Mikhailidis DP, Papadakis JA, Ganotakis ES. Smoking, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. J R Soc Health 1998;118:91-3 [review].
20. Henkin L, Zaccaro D, Haffner S, et al. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9:290-6.
21. Henkin L, Zaccaro D, Haffner S, et al. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9:290-6.
22. Eliasson B, Taskinen MR, Smith U. Long-term use of nicotine gum is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Circulation 1996;94:878-81.
23. Assali AR, Beigel Y, Schreibman R, et al. Weight gain and insulin resistance during nicotine replacement therapy. Clin Cardiol 1999;22:357-60.
24. Eliasson B, Attvall S, Taskinen MR, Smith U. Smoking cessation improves insulin sensitivity in healthy middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Invest 1997;27:450-6.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol and Public Health: What does moderate drinking mean?; www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#moderateDrinking;page last updated: 14 March 2014 [accessed 9 June 2014].
26. Flanagan DE, Moore VM, Godsland IF, et al. Alcohol consumption and insulin resistance in young adults. Eur J Clin Invest 2000;30:297-301.
27. Kiechl S, Willeit J, Poewe W, et al. Insulin sensitivity and regular alcohol consumption: large, prospective, cross sectional population study Bruneck study. BMJ 1996;313:1040-4.
28. Mayer EJ, Newman B, Quesenberry CP Jr, et al. Alcohol consumption and insulin concentrations. Role of insulin in associations of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Circulation 1993;88:2190-7.
29. Lazarus R, Sparrow D, Weiss ST. Alcohol intake and insulin levels. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:909-16.
30. Rimm EB, Klatsky A, Grobbee D, Stampfer MJ. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits? BMJ 1996;312:731-6 [review].
31. Hendriks HF, Veenstra J, Velthuis-te Wierik EJ, et al. Effect of moderate dose of alcohol with evening meal on fibrinolytic factors. BMJ 1994;304:1003-6.
32. van Baak MA, Borghouts LB. Relationships with physical activity. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S16-S18 [review].
33. Borghouts LB, Keizer HA. Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:1-12 [review].
34. Torjesen PA, Birkeland KI, Anderssen SA, et al. Lifestyle changes may reverse development of the insulin resistance syndrome. The Oslo Diet and Exercise Study: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 1997;20:26-31.
35. Eriksson J, Tuominen J, Valle T, et al. Aerobic endurance exercise or circuit-type resistance training for individuals with impaired glucose tolerance? Horm Metab Res 1998;30:37-41.
36. Smutok MA, Reece C, Kokkinos PF, et al. Effects of exercise training modality on glucose tolerance in men with abnormal glucose regulation. Int J Sports Med 1994;15:283-9.
37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How much physical activity do adults need?; http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/adults.html; page last updated: 3 March 2014 [accessed 9 July 2014].
38. van Baak MA, Borghouts LB. Relationships with physical activity. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S16-S18 [review].
39. Eriksson J, Taimela S, Koivisto VA. Exercise and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 1997;40:125-35 [review].
40. Eriksson J, Taimela S, Koivisto VA. Exercise and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 1997;40:125-35 [review].
41. McLaughlin T, Abbasi F, Carantoni M, et al. Differences in insulin resistance do not predict weight loss in response to hypocaloric diets in healthy obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:578-81.
42. Brandi LS, Santoro D, Natali A, et al. Insulin resistance of stress: sites and mechanisms. Clin Sci (Colch) 1993;85:525-35.
43. Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Ravaja N, Raikkonen K, et al. Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: moderating influence of psychosocial stress. Metabolism 1998;47:1440-9.
44. Raikkonen K, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Adlercreutz H, Hautanen A. Psychosocial stress and the insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolism 1996;45:1533-8.
45. Reaven GM. Do high carbohydrate diets prevent the development or attenuate the manifestations (or both) of syndrome X? A viewpoint strongly against. Curr Opin Lipidol 1997;8:23-7 [review].
46. Connor WE, Connor SL. Should a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet be recommended for everyone? The case for a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. N Engl J Med 1997;337:562-3 [editorial].
47. Williams DE, Prevost AT, Whichelow MJ, et al. A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr 2000;83:257-66.
48. Baba NH, Sawaya S, Torbay N, et al. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:1202-6.
49. Wolfe BM. Potential role of raising dietary protein intake for reducing risk of atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol 1995;11:127G-131G.
50. Wolfe BM, Piche LA. Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects. Clin Invest Med 1999;22:140-8.
51. Purnell JQ, Brunzell JD. The central role of dietary fat, not carbohydrate, in the insulin resistance syndrome. Curr Opin Lipidol 1997;8:17-22 [review].
52. Marshall JA, Bessesen DH, Hamman RF. High saturated fat and low starch and fibre are associated with hyperinsulinaemia in a non-diabetic population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 1997;40:430-8.
53. Feskens EJ, Loeber JG, Kromhout D. Diet and physical activity as determinants of hyperinsulinemia: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Epidemiol 1994 15;140:350-60.
54. Daly ME, Vale C, Walker M, et al. Dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity: a review of the evidence and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1072-85 [review].
55. Daly ME, Vale C, Walker M, et al. Acute effects on insulin sensitivity and diurnal metabolic profiles of a high-sucrose compared with a high-starch diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1186-96.
56. Wolever TM. Dietary carbohydrates and insulin action in humans. Br J Nutr 2000;83:S97-S102 [review].
57. Mathers JC, Daly ME. Dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998;1:553-7 [review].
58. Frost G, Leeds A, Trew G, et al. Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low glycemic diet. Metabolism 1998;47:1245-51.
59. Kiens B, Richter EA. Types of carbohydrate in an ordinary diet affect insulin action and muscle substrates in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:47-53.
60. Jenkins DJ, Axelsen M, Kendall CW, et al. Dietary fibre, lente carbohydrates and the insulin-resistant diseases. Br J Nutr 2000;83:S157-S163 [review].
61. Barnard RJ, Wen SJ. Exercise and diet in the prevention and control of the metabolic syndrome. Sports Med 1994;18:218-28 [review].
62. Storlien LH, Kriketos AD, Calvert GD, et al. Fatty acids, triglycerides and syndromes of insulin resistance. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997;57:379-85 [review].
63. Riccardi G, Rivellese AA. Dietary treatment of the metabolic syndrome-the optimal diet. Br J Nutr 2000;83:S143-S148 [review].
64. Torjesen PA, Birkeland KI, Anderssen SA, et al. Lifestyle changes may reverse development of the insulin resistance syndrome. The Oslo Diet and Exercise Study: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 1997;20:26-31.
65. Anderssen SA, Hjermann I, Urdal P, et al. Improved carbohydrate metabolism after physical training and dietary intervention in individuals with the "atherothrombogenic syndrome." Oslo Diet and Exercise Study (ODES). A randomized trial. J Intern Med 1996;240:203-9.
66. Torjesen PA, Birkeland KI, Anderssen SA, et al. Lifestyle changes may reverse development of the insulin resistance syndrome. The Oslo Diet and Exercise Study: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 1997;20:26-31.
67. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 2000;23:9-14.
68. Landin K, Holm G, Tengborn L, Smith U. Guar gum improves insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, blood pressure, and fibrinolysis in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1061-5.
69. Cavallo-Perin P, Bruno A, Nuccio P, et al. Dietary guar gum supplementation does not modify insulin resistance in gross obesity. Acta Diabetol Lat 1985;22:139-142.
70. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr 1993;123:626-33 [review].
71. Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:548-55 [review].
72. Vincent JB. Mechanisms of chromium action: low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:6-12 [review].
73. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:404-10 [review].
74. Morris BW, MacNeil S, Stanley K, et al. The inter-relationship between insulin and chromium in hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps in healthy volunteers. J Endocrinol 1993;139:339-45.
75. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 2000;23:9-14.
76. Landin K, Holm G, Tengborn L, Smith U. Guar gum improves insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, blood pressure, and fibrinolysis in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1061-5.
77. Cavallo-Perin P, Bruno A, Nuccio P, et al. Dietary guar gum supplementation does not modify insulin resistance in gross obesity. Acta Diabetol Lat 1985;22:139-142.
78. Sanchez M, de la Sierra A, Coca A, Oral calcium supplementation reduces intraplatelet free calcium concentration and insulin resistance in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1997;29:531-6.
79. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:203-8.
80. Nadler JL, Buchanan T, Natarajan R, et al. Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis. Hypertension 1993;21:1024-9.
81. Humphries S, Kushner H, Falkner B. Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic Black Americans. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:747-56.
82. Rosolova H, Mayer O Jr, Reaven G. Effect of variations in plasma magnesium concentration on resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3783-5.
83. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1291-6.
84. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Tagliamonte MR, et al. Effects of vitamin E and glutathione on glucose metabolism: role of magnesium. Hypertension 1999;34:1002-6.
85. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Current zinc intake and risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and factors associated with insulin resistance in rural and urban populations of North India. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:564-70.
86. Chen MD, Lin PY, Lin WH. Investigation of the relationships between zinc and obesity. Kao Hsiung I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih 1991;7:628-34 [in Chinese].
Last Review: 01-23-2015
Copyright © 2015 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2016.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.