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    Health Information

    Biotin

    Biotin

    Uses

    What Are Star Ratings?

    Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

    2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

    1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

    This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

    Used for Why
    2 Stars
    Brittle Nails
    2.5 mg daily
    Learn More

    Biotin , a B vitamin, is known to strengthen hooves in animals. As a result, Swiss researchers investigated the use of biotin in strengthening brittle fingernails in humans, despite the fact that it remains unclear exactly how biotin affects nail structure. An uncontrolled trial of 2.5 mg biotin per day found improved firmness and hardness in almost all cases after an average treatment time of 5.5 months.1 In a controlled trial using 2.5 mg of biotin per day, women with brittle nails, who had their nail thickness measured before and at six to fifteen months after, found their nail thickness increased by 25%. As a result, splitting of nails was reduced. In an uncontrolled study of people who had been taking biotin for brittle nails in America, 63% showed improvement from taking biotin.2 Although the amount of research on the subject is quite limited and positive effects do not appear in all people, those people having brittle nails may want to consider a trial period of at least several months, using 2.5 mg per day of biotin.

    2 Stars
    Pregnancy and Postpartum Support
    Use a prenatal supplement that includes biotin
    Learn More

    Biotin deficiency may occur in as many as 50% of pregnant women.3 As biotin deficiency in pregnant animals results in birth defects, it seems reasonable to use a prenatal multiple vitamin and mineral formula that contains biotin.

    2 Stars
    Type 1 Diabetes
    16 mg daily
    Learn More
    Biotin is a B vitamin needed to process glucose. When people with type 1 diabetes were given 16 mg of biotin per day for one week, their fasting glucose levels dropped by 50%.4 Biotin may also reduce pain from diabetic nerve damage (neuropathy).5 Some doctors try 16 mg of biotin for a few weeks to see if blood sugar levels will fall.
    2 Stars
    Type 2 Diabetes
    9 to 16 mg daily
    Learn More
    Biotin is a B vitamin needed to process glucose. When people with type 2 diabetes were given 9 mg of biotin per day for two months, their fasting glucose levels dropped dramatically.6 Biotin may also reduce pain from diabetic nerve damage.7 Some doctors try 9 to 16 mg of biotin per day for a few weeks to see if blood sugar levels will fall.
    1 Star
    Seborrheic Dermatitis
    Refer to label instructions
    Learn More

    Preliminary studies have found that injecting either the infant or the nursing mother with biotin may be an effective treatment for cradle cap.8 , 9 Studies of oral biotin have yielded mixed results in infants. Older preliminary studies and case reports suggest that 4 mg per day of oral biotin might be sufficient for mild cases of cradle cap, but 10 mg per day was required for more severe cases.10 Two more recent, controlled trials found that oral biotin (4 or 5 mg per day) produced no benefit.11 , 12 Thus, the scientific support for using oral biotin to treat cradle cap is weak. The role of biotin in adult seborrheic dermatitis has not been studied.

    How It Works

    How to Use It

    The ideal intake of biotin is unknown. However, the amount of biotin found in most diets, combined with intestinal production, appears to be adequate for preventing deficiency symptoms. Researchers have estimated that 30 mcg per day appears to be an adequate intake for adults.13 Typically, consumption from a Western diet has been estimated to be 30-70 mcg per day. Larger amounts of biotin (8-16 mg per day) may be supportive for people with diabetes by lowering blood glucose levels and by preventing diabetic neuropathy.14 , 15 Biotin in the amount of 2.5 mg per day strengthened the fingernails of two-thirds of a group of people with brittle nails , according to one clinical trial.16

    Where to Find It

    Good dietary sources of biotin include organ meats, oatmeal, egg yolk, soy , mushrooms, bananas, peanuts, and brewer's yeast . Bacteria in the intestine also produce significant amounts of biotin, but evidence is conflicting as to whether biotin produced by intestinal bacteria is present at a location or is in a form that permits significant absorption by the body.17

    Possible Deficiencies

    Certain rare inborn diseases can leave people with depletion of biotin due to the inability to metabolize the vitamin normally. A dietary deficiency of biotin, however, is quite uncommon, even in those consuming a diet low in this B vitamin. Nonetheless, if someone eats large quantities of raw egg whites, a biotin deficiency can develop, because a protein in the raw egg white inhibits the absorption of biotin. Cooked eggs do not present this problem. Long-term antibiotic use can interfere with biotin production in the intestine and increase the risk of deficiency symptoms, such as dermatitis , depression , hair loss,18 anemia , and nausea. Long-term use of anti-seizure medications may also lead to biotin deficiency.19 Alcoholics and people with diseases of the stomach have been reported to show evidence of poor biotin status. However, the usefulness of biotin supplementation for these people remains unclear.20 In animals, and possibly in humans, biotin deficiency can cause birth defects .21 As biotin deficiency may occur in as many as 50% of pregnant women,22 it seems reasonable to use a prenatal multiple vitamin and mineral formula that contains biotin.

    Interactions

    Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

    Biotin works with some other B vitamins, such as folic acid , pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and vitamin B12 . However, no solid evidence indicates that people supplementing with biotin also need to take these other vitamins. Symptoms of pantothenic acid or zinc deficiency have been reported to be lessened with biotin,23 though people with these deficiencies should supplement with the nutrients in which they are deficient. Researchers have speculated that biotin and alpha lipoic acid may compete with each other for absorption or uptake into cells; but little is known about the importance of these interactions in humans.24

    There is one report of a 76-year-old woman who developed a life-threatening condition (eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion) while taking 10 mg of biotin per day and 300 mg of pantothenic acid per day.25 However, it is not clear whether the vitamins caused the problem.

    Interactions with Medicines

    Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

    Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

    Replenish Depleted Nutrients

    • Carbamazepine

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.29 , 30 , 31 , 32 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Felbamate

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.37 , 38 , 39 , 40 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Gabapentin

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.44 , 45 , 46 , 47 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Levetiracetam

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.51 , 52 , 53 , 54 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Oxcarbazepine

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.56 , 57 , 58 , 59 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Phenobarbital

      One controlled study showed that long-term use of phenobarbital increases the breakdown of biotin.60 A test tube study also showed that primidone, a drug that is converted to phenobarbital by the body, prevents the absorption of biotin.61 Further research is needed to determine whether people taking phenobarbital might be at risk for biotin deficiency.

    • Phenytoin

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.62 , 63 , 64 , 65 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Primidone

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.67 , 68 , 69 , 70 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Topiramate

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.71 , 72 , 73 , 74 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    • Valproate

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.75 , 76 , 77 , 78 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Zonisamide

      Several controlled studies have shown that long-term anticonvulsant treatment decreases blood levels of biotin.79 , 80 , 81 , 82 In children, a deficiency of biotin can lead to withdrawn behavior and a delay in mental development. Adults with low biotin levels might experience a loss of appetite, feelings of discomfort or uneasiness, mental depression , or hallucinations. To avoid side effects, individuals taking anticonvulsants should supplement with biotin either alone or as part of a multivitamin .

    Reduce Side Effects

    • none

    Support Medicine

    • Alclometasone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.26 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Amcinonide

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.27 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Betamethasone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.28 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Clobetasol

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.33 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Clocortolone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.34 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Desoximetasone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.35 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Diflorasone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.36 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Fluocinonide

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.41 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Flurandrenolide

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.42 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Fluticasone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.43 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Halcinonide

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.48 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Halobetasol

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.49 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Hydrocortisone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.50 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Mometasone

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.55 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Prednicarbate

      Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.66 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

    Reduces Effectiveness

    • none

    Potential Negative Interaction

    • none

    Explanation Required

    • Glyburide
    • Insulin
      Biotin supplements have been shown to improve blood sugar control in people with diabetes.83 Consequently, supplementing with biotin could reduce blood sugar levels in people with taking insulin, potentially resulting in abnormally low blood sugar levels ( hypoglycemia ). While biotin supplementation may be beneficial for people with diabetes, its use in combination with insulin or with any other blood sugar-lowering medication should be supervised by a doctor.
    The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers' package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

    Side Effects

    Side Effects

    Excess intake of biotin is excreted in the urine; no toxicity symptoms have been reported.

    References

    1. Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin. Z Hautkr 1989;64:41-8 [in German].

    2. Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis 1993;51:303-5.

    3. Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:295-9.

    4. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:389-92.

    5. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:511-4.

    6. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:389-92.

    7. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:511-4.

    8. Nisenson A. Seborrheic dermatitis of infants: treatment with biotin injections for the nursing mother. Pediatrics 1969;44:1014-6.

    9. Messaritakis J, Kattamis C, Karabula C, Matsaniotis N. Generalized seborrheic dermatitis: clinical and therapeutic data of 25 patients. Arch Dis Child 1975;50:871-4.

    10. Nisenson A. Seborrheic dermatits of infants and Leiner's disease: a biotin deficiency. J Pediatr 1957;51:537-48.

    11. Keipert JA. Oral use of biotin in seborrheic dermatitis of infancy: a controlled trial. Med J Aust 1976;1:584-5.

    12. Erlichman M, Goldstein R, Levi E, et al. Infantile flexural seborrheic dermatitis. Neither biotin nor essential fatty acid deficiency. Arch Dis Child 1981;56:560-2.

    13. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. J Nutr Biochem 1999;10:128-38 [review].

    14. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:389-93.

    15. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:511-4.

    16. Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis 1993;51:303-5.

    17. Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross, AC (eds). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999, 459-66.

    18. Mock DM. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin Dermatol 1991;10:296-302.

    19. Said HM, Redha R, Nylander W. Biotin transport in the human intestine: inhibition by anticonvulsant drugs. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:127-31.

    20. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. J Nutr Biochem 1999;10:128-38 [review].

    21. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000;223:14-21 [review].

    22. Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:295-9.

    23. Somer E. The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. New York: Harper, 1995, 70-2.

    24. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. J Nutr Biochem 1999;10:128-38 [review].

    25. Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, et al. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:424-6.

    26. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    27. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    28. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    29. Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology 1997;49:1444-7.

    30. Mock DM, Mock NI, Nelson RP, Lombard KA. Disturbances in biotin metabolism in children undergoing long-term anticonvulsant therapy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998;26:245-50.

    31. Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, Kochen W. Biotin status of epileptics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:297-313.

    32. Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, et al. Effect of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin status. Drug Nutr Interact 1988;5:317-43.

    33. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    34. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    35. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    36. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    37. Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology 1997;49:1444-7.

    38. Mock DM, Mock NI, Nelson RP, Lombard KA. Disturbances in biotin metabolism in children undergoing long-term anticonvulsant therapy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998;26:245-50.

    39. Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, Kochen W. Biotin status of epileptics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:297-313.

    40. Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, et al. Effect of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin status. Drug Nutr Interact 1988;5:317-43.

    41. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    42. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    43. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    44. Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology 1997;49:1444-7.

    45. Mock DM, Mock NI, Nelson RP, Lombard KA. Disturbances in biotin metabolism in children undergoing long-term anticonvulsant therapy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998;26:245-50.

    46. Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, Kochen W. Biotin status of epileptics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:297-313.

    47. Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, et al. Effect of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin status. Drug Nutr Interact 1988;5:317-43.

    48. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    49. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    50. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8 [letter].

    51. Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology 1997;49:1444-7.

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