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    Brewer's Yeast

    Brewer's Yeast

    Uses

    What Are Star Ratings?

    Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

    2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

    1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

    This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

    Used for Why
    3 Stars
    Type 2 Diabetes
    9 grams per day
    Learn More

    Medical reports dating back to 1853, as well as modern research, indicate that chromium-rich brewer's yeast (9 grams per day) can be useful in treating type 2 diabetes.1 , 2 In recent years, chromium has been shown to improve glucose levels and related variables in people with glucose intolerance and type 2, gestational, and steroid-induced diabetes.3 , 4 Improved glucose tolerance with lower or similar levels of insulin have been reported in more than ten trials of chromium supplementation in people with varying degrees of glucose intolerance.5 Chromium supplements improve glucose tolerance in people with type 2 diabetes,6 apparently by increasing sensitivity to insulin .7 Chromium improves the processing of glucose in people with prediabetic glucose intolerance and in women with diabetes associated with pregnancy .8 , 9 Chromium even helps healthy people,10 although one such report found chromium useful only when accompanied by 100 mg of niacin per day.11 Chromium may also lower levels of total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (risk factors in heart disease ).12 , 13

    A few trials have reported no beneficial effects from chromium supplementation.14 , 15 , 16 All of these trials used 200 mcg or less of supplemental chromium, which is often not adequate for people with diabetes, especially if it is in a form that is poorly absorbed. The typical amount of chromium used in research trials is 200 mcg per day, although as much as 1,000 mcg per day has been used.17 Many doctors recommend up to 1,000 mcg per day for people with diabetes.18

    Supplementation with chromium or brewer's yeast could potentially enhance the effects of drugs used for diabetes (e.g., insulin or other blood sugar-lowering agents) and possibly lead to hypoglycemia . Therefore, people with diabetes taking these medications should supplement with chromium or brewer's yeast only under the supervision of a doctor.

    2 Stars
    Infectious Diarrhea
    Three capsulesor tablets three times per day
    Learn More
    Brewer's yeast supplementation has been shown to alter immune function and the flora living in the intestine, and may relieve infectious diarrhea. Three capsules or tablets of brewer's yeast three times per day for two weeks was reported to improve three cases of infectious diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile.19 Animal research has confirmed that brewer's yeast helps fight this unfriendly bacterium.20 (Note that real brewer's yeast is not identical to nutritional, or torula, yeast and that when asking for "brewer's yeast" in health food stores, people are often directed toward these other products. Real brewer's yeast is bitter, whereas other health food store yeasts have a more pleasant taste.)

    How It Works

    How to Use It

    Brewer's yeast is often taken as a powder, or as tablets or capsules. High-quality brewer's yeast powder or flakes contain as much as 60 mcg of chromium per tablespoon (15 grams). When doctors recommend brewer's yeast, they will often suggest 1-2 tablespoons (15-30 grams) of this high-potency bulk product per day. Remember, if it is not bitter, it is not likely to be real brewer's yeast and therefore will not contain biologically active chromium. In addition, "primary grown" yeast (i.e., that grown specifically for harvest, as opposed to that recovered in the brewing process) may not contain GTF.

    Where to Find It

    Brewer's yeast, which has a very bitter taste, is recovered after being used in the beer-brewing process. Brewer's yeast can also be grown specifically for harvest as a nutritional supplement. "De-bittered" yeast is also available, though most yeast sold in health food stores that does not taste bitter is not real brewer's yeast.

    Possible Deficiencies

    Brewer's yeast is not an essential nutrient, but it can be used as a source of B-complex vitamins and protein. It is by far the best source of chromium , both in terms of quantity and bio-availability.

    Interactions

    Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

    Because it contains a highly biologically active form of chromium , supplementation with brewer's yeast could potentially enhance the effects of drugs for diabetes (e.g., insulin or other blood sugar-lowering agents) and possibly lead to hypoglycemia . Therefore, people with diabetes taking these medications should supplement with chromium or brewer's yeast only under the supervision of a doctor.

    Interactions with Medicines

    Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

    Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

    Replenish Depleted Nutrients

    • none

    Reduce Side Effects

    • Amoxicillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. A nonpathogenic yeast known as Saccharomyces boulardii has been shown in two double-blind studies to decrease frequency of diarrhea in people taking amoxicillin as well as other penicillin-type drugs compared to placebo.26 , 27 There were overall few people in these studies using amoxicillin specifically, so there is no definitive proof that Saccharomyces boulardii will be beneficial for everyone when it is combined with amoxicillin. The studies used 1 gram of Saccharomyces boulardii per day.

      A separate double-blind study found that taking a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, two normal gut bacteria, with amoxicillin did not protect children from developing diarrhea.28 The authors of the study point out some problems such as the parents' inability to consistently define diarrhea. However, at this time, it is unknown if lactobacillus products will reduce diarrhea due to amoxicillin.

      Controlled studies have shown that taking other probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium longum-also helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.29

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 30 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)31-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.32 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.33

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. A nonpathogenic yeast known as Saccharomyces boulardii has been shown in two double-blind studies to decrease frequency of diarrhea in people taking amoxicillin as well as other penicillin-type drugs compared to placebo.34 , 35 There were overall few people in these studies using amoxicillin specifically, so there is no definitive proof that Saccharomyces boulardii will be beneficial for everyone when it is combined with amoxicillin. The studies used 1 gram of Saccharmoyces boulardii per day.

      A separate double-blind study found that taking a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, two normal gut bacteria, with amoxicillin did not protect children from developing diarrhea.36 The authors of the study point out some problems such as the parents' inability to consistently define diarrhea. However, at this time, it is unknown if lactobacillus products will reduce diarrhea due to amoxicillin.

      Controlled studies have shown that taking other probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium longum-also helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.37

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 38 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)39-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.40 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.41

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Ampicillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.42

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 43 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)44-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.45 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.46

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Azithromycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.52

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 53 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)54-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.55 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.56

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Aztreonam

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.57

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 58 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)59-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.60 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.61

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Bacampicillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.62

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 63 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)64-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.65 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.66

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Bacitracin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.67

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)-helps prevent recurrence of this infection.68 , 69 In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.70 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.71

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefaclor

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.72

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 73 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)74-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.75 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.76

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefazolin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.82

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 83 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)84-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.85 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.86

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefdinir

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.87

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 88 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)89-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.90 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.91

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefepime

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.92

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 93 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)94-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.95 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.96

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefoperazone

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.102

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 103 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)104-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.105 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.106

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefotaxime

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.107

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 108 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)109-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.110 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.111

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefotetan

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.112

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 113 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)114-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.115 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.116

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefoxitin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.117

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 118 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)119-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.120 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.121

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefpodoxime

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.122

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 123 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)124-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.125 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.126

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefprozil

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.127

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 128 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)129-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.130 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.131

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Ceftazidime

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.132

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 133 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)134-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.135 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.136

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Ceftriaxone

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.137

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 138 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)139-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.140 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.141

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefuroxime

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.142

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 143 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)144-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.145 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.146

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cephalothin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.147

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 148 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)149-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.150 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.151

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cephapirin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.152

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 153 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)154-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.155 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.156

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Ciprofloxacin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.157

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 158 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)159-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.160 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.161

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Citalopram

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.162

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 163 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)164-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.165 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.166

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Clarithromycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.167

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 168 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)169-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.170 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.171

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Clindamycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.172

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 173 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)174-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.175 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.176

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cloxacillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.177

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 178 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)179-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.180 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.181

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Dapsone

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.182

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 183 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)184-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.185 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.186

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Demeclocycline

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.187

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 188 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)189-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.190 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.191

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Dicloxacillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.192

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 193 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)194-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.195 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.196

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Doxycycline

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.197

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 198 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)199-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.200 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.201

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Erythromycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Yogurt containing Bifidobacterium  longum culture has decreased erythromycin-induced diarrhea in a single-blind study of ten healthy people.202 Yogurt containing live cultures has also protected against other antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

      Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.203

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 204 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)205-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.206 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.207

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Gentamicin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.208

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast, such as Saccharomyces boulardii 209 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast),210 helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.211 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.212

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Imipenem-Cilastatin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.213

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 214 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)215-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.216 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.217

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Levofloxacin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.218

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 219 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)220-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.221 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.222

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Meropenem

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.223

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 224 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)225-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.226 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.227

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Mezlocillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.228

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 229 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)230-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.231 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.232

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Minocycline

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.233

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 234 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)235-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.236 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.237

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Nafcillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.238

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 239 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)240-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.241 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.242

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Neomycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.243

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 244 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)245-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.246 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.247

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Netilmicin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.248

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)-helps prevent recurrence of this infection.249 , 250 In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.251 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.252

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Nitrofurantoin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.253

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 254 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)255-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.256 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.257

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Ofloxacin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.258

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 259 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)260-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.261 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.262

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Oxacillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.263

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 264 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)265-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.266 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.267

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Penicillin V

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.268

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 269 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)270-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.271 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.272

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Piperacillin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.273

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 274 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)275-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.276 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.277

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Piperacillin-Tazobactam

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.278

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 279 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)280-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.281 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.282

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Silver Sulfadiazine

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.283

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 284 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)285-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.286 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.287

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Streptomycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.288

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)-helps prevent recurrence of this infection.289 , 290 In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.291 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.292

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Sulfacetamide

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.293

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 294 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)295-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.296 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.297

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Sulfamethoxazole

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.298

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 299 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)300-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.301 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.302

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Sulfasalazine

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.303

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 304 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)305-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.306 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.307

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Sulfisoxazole

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.308

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 309 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)310-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.311 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.312

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Tetracycline

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.313

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 314 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)315-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.316 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.317

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Tobramycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.318

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 319 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)320-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.321 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.322

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Trimethoprim

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.323

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 324 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)325-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.326 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.327

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.328

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 329 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)330-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.331 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.332

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Triple Sulfa

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.333

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 334 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)335-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.336 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.337

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Troleandomycin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.338

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 339 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)340-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.341 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.342

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

    Support Medicine

    • Amikacin

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.21

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)-helps prevent recurrence of this infection.22 , 23 In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.24 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.25

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Ampicillin with Sulbactam

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.47

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 48 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)49-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.50 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.51

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefamandole

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.77

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 78 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)79-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.80 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.81

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
    • Cefixime

      A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea , which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms-such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii-helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.97

      The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast-such as Saccharomyces boulardii 98 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast)99-helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.100 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

      Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina ( candida vaginitis ) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as "dysbiosis"). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.101

      The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

    Reduces Effectiveness

    • none

    Potential Negative Interaction

    • none

    Explanation Required

    • none

    The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers' package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

    Side Effects

    Side Effects

    Side effects have not been reported from the use of brewer's yeast, although allergies to it exist in some people. It is not related to Candida albicans fungus, which causes yeast infection .

    Saccharomyces boulardii is registered in Europe under the name Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the manufacturer states that S. boulardii is not the same as brewer's yeast (S. cerevisiae). There is a case report of a person with severely impaired immune function who, after receiving treatment with S. boulardii, developed an invasive fungal infection identified as S. cerevisiae. 343 People with severe impairment of the immune system should therefore not take S. boulardii unless supervised by a doctor.

    References

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    2. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.

    3. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2000;26:22-7 [review].

    4. Martin J, Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1826-32.

    5. Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:548-55 [review].

    6. Evans GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. Int J Biosocial Med Res 1989;11:163-80.

    7. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Diabetes. In Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice: Reference Manual and Study Guide. Kent, WA: 1996, 54-64 [review].

    8. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Canary JJ. Supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:909-16.

    9. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:91-8.

    10. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism 1983;32:894-9.

    11. Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9.

    12. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52.

    13. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27-45.

    14. Sherman L, Glennon JA, Brech WJ, et al. Failure of trivalent chromium to improve hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1968;17:439-42.

    15. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27.

    16. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.

    17. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-91.

    18. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Nutritional protocols: diabetes mellitus. In Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice: Protocols and Supporting Information. Kent, WA: 1996, 10.

    19. 23. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion C, et al. Treatment of *Clostridium difficile* diarrhea with brewer's yeast. *Lancet* 1994;343:171-2 [letter].

    20. Izadnia F, Wong CT, Kocoshis SA. Brewer's yeast and *Saccharomyces boulardii* both attenuate Clostridium difficile-induced colonic secretion in the rat. *Dig Dis Sci* 1998;43:2055-60.

    21. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    22. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    23. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    24. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    25. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    26. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    27. McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, et al. Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90:439-48.

    28. Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP Ann Pharmacother 1990;24:382-4.

    29. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    30. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    31. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    32. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    33. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    34. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    35. McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, et al. Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90:439-48.

    36. Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP Ann Pharmacother 1990;24:382-4.

    37. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    38. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    39. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    40. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    41. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    42. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    43. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    44. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    45. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    46. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    47. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    48. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    50. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    51. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    52. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    53. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    55. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    56. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    57. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    58. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    60. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    61. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    62. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    63. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    66. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    67. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    68. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    72. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    73. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    76. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    77. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    78. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    81. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    82. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    83. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    86. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    87. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    88. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    92. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    93. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    97. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    98. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    100. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    101. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    102. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    103. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    104. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    105. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    106. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    107. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    108. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    109. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    110. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    111. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    112. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    113. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    116. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    117. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    118. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    119. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

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    121. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    122. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    123. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    124. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    125. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    126. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    127. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    128. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    131. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    132. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    133. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    136. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    137. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    138. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    153. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    156. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    157. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    158. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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    204. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    205. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    206. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    207. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    208. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    209. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    210. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    211. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    212. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    213. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    214. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    215. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    216. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    217. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    218. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    219. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    220. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    221. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    222. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    223. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    224. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    225. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    226. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    227. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    228. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    229. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    230. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    231. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    232. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    233. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    234. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    235. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    236. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    237. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    238. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    239. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    240. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    241. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    242. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    243. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    244. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    245. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    246. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    247. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    248. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    249. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    250. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    251. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    252. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    253. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    254. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    255. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    256. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    257. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    258. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    259. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    260. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    261. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    262. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    263. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    264. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    265. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    266. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    267. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    268. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    269. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    270. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    271. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    272. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    273. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    274. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    275. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    276. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    277. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    278. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    279. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    280. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    281. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    282. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    283. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    284. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    285. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    286. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    287. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    288. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    289. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    290. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    291. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    292. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    293. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    294. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    295. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    296. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    297. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    298. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    299. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    300. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

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    303. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    304. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    305. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    306. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    307. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    308. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    309. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    310. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    311. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    312. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    313. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    314. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    315. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    316. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    317. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    318. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    319. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    320. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    321. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

    322. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    323. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    324. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

    325. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

    326. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: A prospective study. Gastroenterol 1989;96:981-8.

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    330. Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion CM, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea with brewer's yeast. Lancet 1994;343:171-2.

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    342. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-6 [review].

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