Dyslexia may occur with other learning
or emotional problems. Some of the conditions associated with
dyslexia may be the result of the way the child's brain was formed or
how it functions. Some of the emotional problems that a child with dyslexia can have are due to frustrations and failures at school and home. But keep in mind that in order to diagnose a child
with dyslexia, the evidence must show that there is no other cause for the
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some children with dyslexia also have
ADHD. But dyslexia and ADHD are two very
different conditions: one does not cause the other. For more
information, see the topic Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Impairments in executive functions. Executive
functions are the ability to use a set of problem-solving skills to attain
goals. This includes the ability to inhibit or defer a response; make a
sequential, strategic plan of action; and commit relevant information to memory
for future use. These abilities are necessary for organizational skills,
planning, impulse control, selective attention, inhibition, and creative
Memory impairments. Difficulties in the ability to
listen, remember, and repeat phonemes or words that are heard are associated
with dyslexia. Many times these children have problems remembering the sounds
in words long enough to match them with letters for spelling. Often they cannot
remember even a short list of instructions.
Problems with mathematics. Some children with
dyslexia have problems learning mathematical concepts and vocabulary. They may
also find it difficult to recognize mathematical symbols, similar to the
problems they have in learning written language. Additionally, solving math
problems that are presented in sentence form may be especially challenging
because of difficulty with language.
Emotional and behavior disorders. Children with
dyslexia are at increased risk for conduct and anxiety disorders, withdrawal,
poor self-esteem, and depression.