An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) 2014 National Diabetes Fact Sheet, more than 29 million American adults and children have diabetes. 86 million Americans aged 20 years and older have pre-diabetes, a condition that increases the risk for developing diabetes. About 1 in 4 Americans that have diabetes do not know that they have this disease.
Diabetes rates are increasing among both adults and children. In 2010, 26 million Americans had diabetes and 79 million had prediabetes.
TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK FACTORS
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes include:
- A previous diabetes test showing impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
- Age 45 years or older
- Family history of diabetes
- Being overweight (BMI 25-30) or obese (BMI>30)
- Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular exercise
- African-American, Hispanic/Latin American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian-American, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
- High blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg or higher)
- Low HDL (good) cholesterol and high triglycerides
- History of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)
Key recommendations from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutritional guidelines include:
- Your eating plan should be individualized to accommodate your unique health profile. For nutritional advice, consult a dietitian or participate in a diabetes self-management education program.
- The ADA no longer has general recommendations for the percentage of daily calories that carbohydrates, fats, or protein should comprise. Those percentages need to be individually determined for each person.
- There is no evidence that any specific eating plan (Mediterranean, vegetarian, or low-carb) is better than another. What is most important is to find a plan that best suits your lifestyle and food preferences.
The CDC now recommends that adults ages 19 to 59 years diagnosed with diabetes should receive vaccinations to prevent hepatitis B. The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood. Unvaccinated people with diabetes can become infected with hepatitis B through sharing fingerstick or blood glucose monitoring devices.