Carbohydrates (carbs) that are made up of just one or two sugars are often called "simple carbohydrates" (or simple sugars). Carbs that are a long string of sugars are called "complex carbohydrates".
The simple sugars are found in fruit (fructose), milk (lactose), table sugar (sucrose), and glucose. The complex carbs include starchy foods, such as rice, pasta, breads and grains.
In answer to your question, table sugar is a simple sugar, too. So sugar and simple carbs both have similar effects on blood sugar (also called blood glucose). One hundred percent of the carbs we eat turn into glucose in the blood stream (with the exception of fiber, which our GI tract isn't able to digest completely).
Carbs in our foods come from a number of sources including starch, fruit, dairy and sweets. The American Diabetes Association states that all carbs will have the same ultimate effect on blood sugar, however, complex carbs, because they are a long string of sugars, will provide a slower rise in blood sugar – after all, it takes some time to break down that long string of sugars into absorbable single sugars.
A well balanced diet will consist of carbs from all sources, but if choosing simple carbs, limit those that have minimal nutritional value, such as candies, sweets and sugary beverages.