Vertigo is a sensation of motion or spinning that is often described as dizziness.
Vertigo is not the same as being lightheaded. People with vertigo feel as though they are actually spinning or moving, or that the world is spinning around them.
Peripheral vertigo; Central vertigo; Dizziness
There are two types of vertigo, peripheral and central vertigo.
Peripheral vertigo is due to a problem in the part of the inner ear that controls balance. These areas are called the vestibular labyrinth or semicircular canals. The problem may also involve the vestibular nerve. This is the nerve between the inner ear and the brain stem.
Peripheral vertigo may be caused by:
- Benign positional vertigo (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo)
- Certain medicines such as aminoglycoside antibiotics, cisplatin, diuretics, or salicylates
- Injury (such as head injury)
- Inflammation of the vestibular nerve (neuronitis)
- Meniere disease
- Pressure on the vestibular nerve, usually from a noncancerous tumor such as a meningioma or schwannoma
Central vertigo is due to a problem in the brain, usually in the brain stem or the back part of the brain (cerebellum).
Central vertigo may be caused by: