A polyp biopsy is a test that takes a sample of, or removes polyps (abnormal growths) for examination.
How the Test is Performed
Some polyps are cancerous (malignant) and the cancer cells are likely to spread. Most polyps are noncancerous (benign). The most common site of polyps that are treated is the colon.
How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location:
- Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel
- Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix
- Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or other endoscopy is used for the throat, stomach, and small bowel
- Laryngoscopy is used for the nose and throat
For areas of the body that can be seen or where the polyp can be felt, a numbing medicine is applied to the skin. Then a small piece of the tissue that appears to be abnormal is removed. This tissue is sent to a laboratory. There, it is tested to see if it is cancerous.