Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It involves a number of tests to detect and measure various compounds that pass through the urine.
Urine appearance and color; Routine urine test
How the Test is Performed
A urine sample is needed. Your health care provider will tell you what type of urine sample is needed. Two common methods of collecting urine are 24-hour urine collection and clean catch urine specimen.
The sample is sent to a lab, where it is examined for the following:
PHYSICAL COLOR AND APPEARANCE
How the urine sample looks to the naked eye:
- Is it clear or cloudy?
- Is it is pale, or dark yellow, or another color?
The urine sample is examined under a microscope to:
- Check if there are any cells, urine crystals, urinary casts, mucus, and other substances.
- Identify any bacteria or other germs.
CHEMICAL APPEARANCE (urine chemistry)
- A special strip (dipstick) is used to test for substances in the urine sample. The strip has pads of chemicals that change color when they come in contact with substances of interest.
Examples of specific urinalysis tests that may done to check for problems include: