Goin DE, Sudat S, Riddell C, Morello-Frosch R, Apte JS, Glymour MM, Karasek D, Casey JA, Environ Sci Technol. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.1c02151. Online ahead of print., 2021 Oct 14
Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs) during pregnancy may increase the risk of preeclampsia, but previous studies have not assessed hyper localized differences in pollutant levels, which may cause exposure misclassification. We used data from Google Street View cars with mobile air monitors that repeatedly sampled NO2, BC, and UFPs every 30 m in Downtown and West Oakland neighborhoods during 2015-2017. Data were linked to electronic health records of pregnant women in the 2014-2016 Sutter Health population, who resided within 120 m of monitoring data (N = 1095), to identify preeclampsia cases. We used G-computation with log-binomial regression to estimate risk differences (RDs) associated with a hypothetical intervention reducing pollutant levels to the 25th percentile observed in our sample on preeclampsia risk, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity. Prevalence of preeclampsia was 6.8%. Median (interquartile range) levels of NO2, BC, and UFPs were 10.8 ppb (9.0, 13.0), 0.34 μg/m3 (0.27, 0.42), and 29.2 # × 103/cm3 (26.6, 32.6), respectively. Changes in the risk of preeclampsia achievable by limiting each pollutant to the 25th percentile were NO2 RD = -1.5 per 100 women (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5, -0.5); BC RD = -1.0 (95% CI: -2.2, 0.02); and UFP RD = -0.5 (95% CI: -1.8, 0.7). Estimated effects were the largest for non-Latina Black mothers: NO2 RD = -2.8 (95% CI: -5.2, -0.3) and BC RD = -3.0 (95% CI: -6.4, 0.4).