Nelson G, Yoon S, Krishna G, Wilfley B, Fahrig R., Med Phys. 40(11):111917. doi: 10.1118/1.4826159., 2013 Nov 01
AbstractPURPOSE: An improved method of image guidance for lung tumor biopsies could help reduce the high rate of false negatives. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of the scanning-beam digital tomography system (SBDX) for providing real-time 3D tomographic reconstructions for target verification. The unique geometry of the system requires trade-offs between patient dose, imaging field of view (FOV), and tomographic angle.
METHODS: Tomosynthetic angle as a function of tumor-to-detector distance was calculated. Monte Carlo Software (PCXMC) was used to calculate organ doses and effective dose for source-to-detector distances (SDDs) from 90 to 150 cm, patient locations with the tumor at 20 cm from the source to 20 cm from the detector, and FOVs centered on left lung and right lung as well as medial and distal peripheries of the lungs. These calculations were done for two systems, a SBDX system and a GE OEC-9800 C-arm fluoroscopic unit. To evaluate the dose effect of the system geometry, results from PCXMC were calculated using a scan of 300 mAs for both SBDX and fluoroscopy. The Rose Criterion was used to find the fluence required for a tumor SNR of 5, factoring in scatter, air-gap, system geometry, and patient position for all models generated with PCXMC. Using the calculated fluence for constant tumor SNR, the results from PCXMC were used to compare the patient dose for a given SNR between SBDX and fluoroscopy.
RESULTS: Tomographic angle changes with SDD only in the region near the detector. Due to their geometry, the source array and detector have a peak tomographic angle for any given SDD at a source to tumor distance that is 69.7% of the SDD assuming constant source and detector size. Changing the patient location in order to increase tomographic angle has a significant effect on organ dose distribution due to geometrical considerations. With SBDX and fluoroscopy geometries, the dose to organs typically changes in an opposing manner with changing patient location. When tumor SNR is held constant (i.e., x-ray fluence is scaled appropriately), SBDX gives 2-10 times less dose than fluoroscopy for the same conditions within the typical range of patient locations. The relative position of the patient (as a percent of SDD) has a much more significant impact on dose than either SDD or patient position. The patient position providing the minimum dose for a given tumor SNR and SDD is approximately the same as the position of maximum tomographic angle.
CONCLUSIONS: SBDX offers a significant dose advantage over currently used C-arm fluoroscopy. The patient location with lowest dose coincides with the location of maximum tomographic angle. In order to provide adequate space for the patient and for the pulmonologists' equipment, a SDD of 100 cm is recommended.