So one thing everyone can do to help prevent stones is to drink extra liquids (to produce 2.5 liters of urine over a 24 hour period). This will keep the urine dilute and prevent crystal formation in the first place. Also, adding lemon juice to your drinks can help (citric acid helps prevent stones by decreasing the ability of crystals to cling together). A low-sodium diet (avoiding salted snack foods, etc) and a moderate protein diet (NOT doing either the Adkins or South Beach high-protein diet) can also be very helpful to prevent stones.
If a patient has more than one stone episode, we typically do a metabolic evaluation to see if special diets or a medication are needed to prevent further stones.