is a nonprofit organization founded in 1975 with the mission to help people
make better health decisions. More than 100 million times a year people like
you use Healthwise® information to take an active
role in their health.
The best formula for making health decisions
is to combine the most reliable medical facts with your personal feelings. Put
more simply: Medical Information + Your Information = Better Health
Your decisions influence your overall well-being as
well as the quality and cost of your care. By taking an active role in your
health, you are likely to be happier with the care you receive and the results
Read these Healthwise stories to see how Healthwise helps
people make better health decisions.
Patricia used the Healthwise Knowledgebase to save her own
just finished her Saturday-morning chores when her lungs began burning. She
sweating and had some numbness in her arms. She drew a bath thinking, "I must
be having a panic attack-I'll be all right if I can just relax."
hours later, the 42-year-old still felt like she had "an elephant
sitting on my chest." Patricia canceled her usual horse-riding lesson and took
a nap instead. When she awoke, she felt even worse.
thought: Check [the Healthwise® Knowledgebase on]
the Internet," says Patricia. "I had almost every heart attack symptom
described in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase. I knew I
had to get to the hospital right away!"
Hospital tests confirmed
that Patricia had indeed had a heart attack, and the following Tuesday she had
triple-bypass heart surgery. Today, Patricia is back in the saddle, riding
horses and enjoying life.
Count on Carolyn
Brzezicki-Healthwise clinical specialist and writer, mom, sister, friend, and registered
"Stories like Patricia's inspire our work every day," says Carolyn
Brzezicki. "Each of us at Healthwise thinks about our own stories of how we've turned
to our information to help our families, friends, and ourselves make better decisions."
a Healthwise clinical specialist, writer, and content developer, focuses on helping
people live better with diabetes. She also reviews the studies, medical literature,
and guidelines to assess how new findings in diabetes may affect the content.
within just a few miles of her extended family, Carolyn is able to be there for them
when they need her-when they're feeling great or not so great. Just like you, she
looks for information that's easy to use and understand for her and her family.
volunteer work in a diabetes-nutrition center, with hospice, and as a facilitator
for a bereavement support group reminds her how confusing medical issues can be. So
when she's at work, she always thinks about what's most important for people to know
and how it should be explained.
"Because I'm a registered nurse, family and
friends call me with questions about a medical test, a new medicine, or what to do
about an issue. I always go straight to the Healthwise Knowledgebase," says Carolyn.
"Over the years, Healthwise has helped me in so many ways. I'm so proud of our work
and how it makes a real difference in people's lives."
doctor Robert Kloner, MD, PhD, is in your corner.
is one of 295 experts who review Healthwise information for accuracy and
currency. He helps us help you make better health decisions on heart-related
Dr. Kloner is known as one of America's leading heart
experts. For the past 30 years Dr. Kloner has taught at medical schools,
participated in major research projects, and contributed to medical journal
articles. He is professor of medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of
University of Southern California. He is also director of research at the Heart
Institute of Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles and an attending
cardiologist at Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical
Dr. Kloner previously directed the Cardiac Research
Laboratory at Harvard Medical School. He has also edited 18 authoritative
"Good information is critical to good health and
good health care," says Dr. Kloner. "With easy-to-understand, reliable
information, people can make good decisions. When I hear stories like
Patricia's, I'm especially gratified to be part of the Healthwise review team."
Healthwise benefits from readers'
input to keep our content helpful. Send us your comments by contacting your sponsoring
organization or by emailing Healthwise at firstname.lastname@example.org. If you contact
Healthwise, you can expect a reply within about two weeks.
For answers to your specific health issues, contact your health professional. Or if
you think you need care right away, call 911 or
other emergency services.
2601 N. Bogus
Last updated: March 2011
Healthwise Medical Review Board
The Healthwise Medical
Board is directed by our chief medical officer, Dr. Adam C. Husney, and
our medical directors, Dr. Kathleen Romito and Dr. Heather Quinn. Both are board-certified
physicians. Dr. Christine Maldonado provides
leadership on behavioral health issues for all Healthwise products. There is also
a panel of board-certified Associate Medical Directors and Medical Editors who are
involved in the planning, product and content development, and the regular and routine
content written by
Chief Medical Officer:Adam C. Husney,
MD, Family Medicine, Boise,
Medical Director:Heather Quinn, MD, Family Medicine, Boise, Idaho
John B. Wong, MD, Internal Medicine/Clinical Decision Making, Boston,
The Healthwise Medical Review Board also includes health
professionals and medical specialists who review Healthwise content from a specialist's
point of view. Their credentials
include board certification, licensure, and/or registration; academic appointments
medical schools; involvement in research; and publication in
peer-reviewed journals and medical textbooks. Most important, they share the
Healthwise commitment to empowering patients with reliable health information
and building strong patient-provider relationships. This encourages
partnerships in the decision-making process. With input from
these specialists, and with oversight by one of the Medical Directors or Medical
Editors, Healthwise medical writers develop health information based on
scientific evidence and current clinical practice.
Before approving reviewers,
Healthwise verifies that they have current licenses, registrations, and certifications
with state or national agencies. We also verify with bodies that certify in specialty
areas, if appropriate. The reviewers must be in good standing with these organizations
during the time they review Healthwise content. We check this standing at least every
3 years. In addition, reviewers agree to notify Healthwise immediately if the status
of their licenses, registrations, or certifications changes.
physicians and health professionals are members of the Healthwise Medical Review
Content Strategy, Special Projects, Technical Architecture, & Operations
M. Ariss, MS
Kacy Laragan Banks, BS, CPCS
Bill Burns, MA
Maria G. Essig, MS
Carrie Henley, BA
Christopher Hess, BA
Paul Lehnert, MA
Kim Oliver, BS
Colleen Cronin, MA
Patrice Dodd, MA
Eileen Ellig, BJ
Marianne Flagg, BA
Lila Havens, MA
Nathaniel Hoffman, MA
Ryan Powers, MFA
Fran Valentine, BA
& Medical Content Specialists-US & Canadian Medicine
Jan Anderson, RN
Julie Beauregard, MLIS
Carolyn Brzezicki, RN,
Bets Davis, MFA
Shannon Erstad, RPT, MBA, MPH
Sara Fuller, MPH, CHES
Arlene Hull, MS,
Jan Nissl, RN, BS
Robin Parks, MS, MSTC
Chad Parmet, BA
Echo Savage, MA
Terrina Coffer, BA
Denele Ivins, BA
Tracy Landauer, BA
Rebecca Whitaker, BA
Content & Multimedia
Eleanor Bailey, MA
Paul Bush, BS
Brian Igeleman, BA
Casey Miller, BA
Mike Ulrich, BFA
Medical Research Library
Karri Alderson, MLIS
Localization, Print, & Translation
Lucia Alzaga, MA, ATA
Banales, MA, PhD, ATA
Doug Dana, BA
Tara Records, BS, CLPM
Last updated: March 2018
Knowledgebase Editorial Policy and Processes
The field of medicine changes
Each day headlines reveal new ways to diagnose, treat, or prevent health problems.
Through a comprehensive topic development process, the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase content is regularly updated to keep pace
with the changes in medicine and medical practice.
Content Written by Healthwise
Healthwise develops content through the collaborative
efforts of content and
medical teams using a comprehensive research and review process.
content team includes full-time professional
medical researchers, writers, and editors who have extensive experience in
scientific research and medical writing. They work closely with members of the
Healthwise medical team, including the chief medical officer, the medical
director, the associate medical directors, and the Healthwise Medical
The Healthwise Medical Review Board includes more than 220
health professionals and medical specialists who review Healthwise content from a
specialist's point of view. Their credentials include board certification, licensure/registration
and/or certification, academic appointments at leading medical schools, involvement
in research, and publication in peer-reviewed journals and medical textbooks. Most
important, they share the Healthwise commitment to empowering patients with reliable
health information and building strong patient-provider relationships.
content starts with evidence-based information. Content team members are experts at
balanced, unbiased perspectives without influence from commercial interests.
Our Conflict of Interest policy enforces our editorial integrity: "All Healthwise
personnel should avoid situations where their personal
interests could conflict, or reasonably appear to conflict, with the interests
of Healthwise. In this regard, personnel must avoid any outside financial
interest that might influence, or appear to influence, their corporate
decisions or actions."
Topic Development Process
are four primary
steps in the development process: planning, research, writing, and
Writers, editors, and associate medical
directors work together to plan the topic.
Medical librarians develop
a research packet for each topic based on extensive research and evaluation of biomedical
literature. Research packets include evidence-based journal and database search results,
gold standard textbook chapters, guideline statements, and outcome studies, as well
as consumer health information.
Writing and review cycles include
collaboration among medical directors and other clinicians. Writers and editors
also collaborate to ensure that the content is in plain language, follows literacy
standards, and meets user-centered learning theory and behavior-change principles.
associate medical director and at least one
specialist review topics during the development process. They ensure accuracy
with current practice standards and identify areas of important development.
These independent medical reviewers ensure that
Healthwise® Knowledgebase topics contain accurate,
New Topic Development
selects new topics on
the basis of several criteria, including requests from consumers and
organizations using the Healthwise® Knowledgebase,
prevalence of the condition, and the potential of shared decision-making for consumers
who have the condition.
updates topics when warranted
by changes in medical practice. The content and medical teams
continually review medical news sources and journals so they can quickly identify
changes that affect the practice of medicine. When important changes occur,
we update topics and include them in the next quarterly release of the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase. In addition,
Healthwise reviews and updates topics on a regular basis.
and people using the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase may suggest changes or
additions to topics. Healthwise considers these recommendations during the topic
development process and includes them in our updates if they meet our standard
criteria and pass the medical review process. If a suggested change applies
only to a particular sponsoring organization's readers, and if it passes
medical review, then we may make the change for that organization's customized
of the Healthwise® Knowledgebase. Any change to
the Healthwise® Knowledgebase must first pass
The last revised date is at the bottom
of every topic page and in the credits section of each topic.
Citing the Evidence
The Healthwise® Knowledgebase contains thousands of unique references to
help readers find more information on topics. Our processes and policies ensure that
entry points of content give readers reasonable access to references. We include
Support statistics, particularly those that play a key role in decision making.
outcomes, effectiveness, or risk data.
Identify testing or treatment recommendations or guidelines.
Support prevalence data.
Also, for all self-assessment or risk analysis tools in the Healthwise®
Knowledgebase, we provide information that describes the source of the tool, the scientific
basis for the tool, how the tool is maintained on the website, the evaluation process,
and the last revised date.
Content Written by Third
Cerner Multum, Inc., Drug Reference (not included in all
The drug reference
included in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase is
provided by Cerner Multum, Inc., of Denver, Colorado.
Multum updates daily.
New information is incorporated
into a database as soon as it appears in the literature or in product labeling.
Doctors and pharmacists review the new information and make any necessary
changes. Multum conducts weekly Current Content searches on all of its drugs,
and it surveys all key periodicals. All leaflets are reviewed by one or
more practicing clinical specialists. Healthwise receives monthly updates from
Multum. The updates are included in the quarterly releases of the
Interest Policy: Multum's content is authored by full-time associates with no
affiliations with drug companies. Consultants who work with the information in
other capacities are required to have no conflicts of interest.
of the last update is at the end of each topic.
National Cancer Institute
NCI Physician Data Query (PDQ®) topics in the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase are provided by the
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Public Health
Service, Department of Health and Human Services.
All PDQ cancer
information summaries are peer-reviewed and updated monthly by six editorial
boards of oncology specialists in adult treatment, pediatric treatment,
supportive care, complementary and alternative medicine, screening, prevention,
and cancer genetics. They review current literature from more than 70
biomedical journals, evaluate its relevance, and synthesize it into concise,
clear summaries. Healthwise receives monthly updates from the National Cancer
Institute. The updates are included in the quarterly releases of the
Interest Policy: PDQ Editorial Board members are selected by the
editor-in-chief of each board. Potential biases or conflicts of interest are
discussed as part of the selection process.
The date of the last
update is at the end of each topic.
in Portland, Oregon,
Healthnotes, Inc., dba AISLE7 is the premier provider of reliable, easy-to-use
health, food, and lifestyle information.
Each year AISLE7 reviews
tens of thousands of articles and more than 600 medical and scientific journals
to ensure that the content stays current, factual, and balanced. Citations
identify the source, the authors, and where and when the information was first
published. The AISLE7 editorial team includes medical doctors, pharmacists,
chiropractors, naturopaths, and dietitians. The Medical Advisory Board includes
medical doctors and experts affiliated with leading medical schools, such as
the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.
Healthwise receives quarterly updates
from AISLE7. The updates are included in the quarterly
releases of the Healthwise®Knowledgebase.
The date of the last
review is at the end of each topic.
Last updated: November 2016
Healthwise Quality Standards
Healthwise is committed
to providing consumers with high-quality health information so that they can
make wise health decisions in partnership with their doctors. We adhere to the
We will create health information that is in
the consumer's best interest.
We will not allow commercial
interests to determine our content.
We pledge to protect the
privacy of individuals using our website.
We provide referenced,
frequently updated, evidence-based health information.
We will not knowingly
post or publish health content that contains false or misleading claims or promotes
ineffective or dangerous products.
Healthwise ensures compliance with
these principles through
internal review and URAC accreditation.
updated: November 2015
Date adopted: May 2005
Healthwise does not
include advertisements in the Healthwise®
Knowledgebase; however, sponsoring organizations may include advertisements
outside but adjacent to Healthwise® Knowledgebase
content. These advertisements may have been selected based upon the specific
topic being viewed. Advertisements are controlled by the sponsoring
organization. For more information, check the advertisement policy of the
Last updated: August
Date adopted: August 2000
Ownership and Funding Disclosure
Healthwise is committed to producing quality
health information for
consumers so that they can make wise decisions with their doctors. Healthwise
health information is not determined by commercial interests.
is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit organization.
Healthwise receives revenue from the
Sale of self-care guides
of health content and software products to hospitals, health plans, employers,
health websites and other organizations. Healthwise may receive revenue based
on advertising and e-commerce revenue that is generated on our clients' websites.
This information does not replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this